In the racing world, horses and jockeys are the heroes of the track. Amid trainers, grooms, and thousands of spectators, no individual is easier to identify than the brightly-clad jockey. They are a symbol of power, skill, and grace, a psychological link between man and horse. African-American jockeys are no exception.

Early American racing history was directly shaped by black hands. Slaves and freed men alike raced and trained Thoroughbreds throughout the country. After the Civil War, former slaves became paid jockeys and stable staff at the farms and plantations where they grew up taking care of the horses. Their knowledge of and connection with race horses were an underpinning of American racing, and many races featuring African-American jockeys, often in equal number to white competitors. In fact, in the first 28 runnings of the Kentucky Derby (1875-1903), 15 of the winners were African-American.

Edward Muybridge, The Horse in motion. “Sallie Gardner,” owned by Leland Stanford; running at a 1:40 gait over the Palo Alto track, 19th June 1878 , albumen, 1878, Library of Congress. 
Muybridge’s early photographic records of black jockeys and boxers show conflicting messages in 19th century race relations. They perpetuate imagery of African-American strength and obedience, while also representing the social mobility of successful black individuals within those sports.

Men like Isaac Murphy, Oliver Lewis, Shelby “Pike” Barnes, and many others used the stereotype of black athleticism to garner respect and greater social and economic freedom. Some were able to negotiate salaries of up to $400,000 in today’s money, an income almost unheard of for black Americans at the time. They raced with a passion familiar to all sport lovers. After an 1890 win at Sheepshead Bay, Isaac Murphy told a reporter simply, “I ride to win.”

Louis Maurer (American, 1832-1932) Proctor Knott (The First Futurity, 1888, Jerome Park, Sheepshead Bay, a Close Finish), 1888, oil on canvas, 13 1/4 x 19 inches
Gift of the Margaret Kendrick Blodgett Foundation, at the request of Mrs. Blodgett’s granddaughter, Margaret Hall Whitfield, in honor of Peter Winants, Director Emeritus of the National Sporting Library, 2001
      Favored to win, Proctor Knott with Shelby “Pike” Barnes up takes 1st place at the 1888 First Futurity and a record $40,000 purse. Barnes was the leading U.S. jockey in both 1888 and 1889. He was also the first jockey to win over 200 races in a year and was among several successful African-American jockeys that dominated the sport in the late 19th century. Barnes was inducted into the National Museum of Racing & Hall of Fame in 2011.


However, the heyday of black American jockeys came to an end. Jim Crow laws and 1896’s “separate but equal” ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson made it harder and harder for black jockeys to find employment. While African-Americans were welcome trainers, grooms, and stable hands throughout the 20th century, they were often shut out from the more visible and lucrative position of jockey. Although tracks are now desegregated and several black jockeys have been elected into the National Museum of Racing’s Hall of Fame, there are significantly fewer African-American wearing silks today. According to a 2013 Jockey’s Guild study, there are only about 30 African-Americans in a membership of nearly 1,000 individuals.

Andre Pater (Polish, American, b. 1953) Going to the Post, 2011, oil on canvas, 24 x 28 inches, Collection of Nils and Samantha Brous © Andre Pater.
Contemporary sporting artist Andre Pater began incorporating African Americans into his work in acknowledgment of the previously marginalized black jockeys of the 19th century.


Andre Pater (Polish, American, b. 1953) Jockey Up, Turquoise and Gold Silks, pastel on board, 34 x 24 inches, 2008. Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Jose Laudo De Camargo © Andre Pater

Racing contributions and successes by black jockeys demonstrate the value of representation- both on the track and on canvas. African-American jockeys in the closing years of the 19th century dominated the sport in many ways. Yes, they won countless races and took home impressive purses. But they also showed – and still show – great tenacity and passion. They are smart, skilled, and talented competitors whose achievements continue to inspire us.

Want to know more about African-American jockeys and Gilded Age imagery? Join us on June 13th for a Heroes & Underdogs talk with Dr. John Ott of James Madison University. Dr. Ott will be presenting “Race Forms: African-American Jockeys in Eadweard Muybridge’s Animal Locomotion and Gilded Age Philadelphia”.



Anne Marie Barnes is the Clarice & Robert H. Smith Educator at the National Sporting Library & Museum (NSLM). Her passion for museum work began shortly after graduation with a Bachelor’s degree in History from James Madison University. Between her expeience working at the Fredericksburg Area Museum & Cultural Center and the Washington Heritage Museums, she has done everything from designing summer camps to formulating major fundraisers. Have a question? Contact Anne Marie by e-mail


Jessica Callihan grew up fishing on her family’s dairy farm in Southern Michigan, an upbringing familiar to us here in Middleburg- pastoral landscapes, wildlife, and ‘one stoplight’ towns. But Jessica had her sights set high, and she worked hard towards becoming an Aviation Electrician with the United States Navy. That’s when fate intervened.

During a training exercise while on active duty, Jessica fell approximately 10 feet and sustained permanent nerve damage to her extremities. In between surgeries and being confined to a hospital, Jessica’s was given a set of pastels. Jessica began recreating fishing and pastoral works in earnest. Her first pastel pieces got her, well, “hooked.”

Jessica Callihan,  A Time For Reflections, pastel on panel 11 x 14 inches. Private Collection.

While exploring art as a way to relieve the pain and frustration of her arduous recovery, a group called Project Healing Waters found her and taught her how to tie flies, cast a rod, and fish with her disabilities.


“The program gave me so much more than the sport of fly fishing; it gave me a community that became extended family and ultimately gave me beauty back in life.” -Jessica Callihan

Determined to grow despite setbacks that would challenge even the most disciplined individuals, Jessica slowly transitioned from a participant to an Ambassador for Project Healing Waters, and at the same time she earned a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree from Maryville College in Tennessee.


Jessica Callihan, Sweet Dreams, oil on canvas, 9.75 x 18 inches

Recently, Jessica became a Founding Member of Able Women: a nonprofit dedicated to empowering women through the strength, courage, passion, and determination found through fly fishing and being outdoors. Her own story of how fly fishing saved her life inspires Jessica to teach others, especially disabled Veterans, women, and children, how to do the sport she loves. When she is not traveling, giving speeches, or teaching the art of fly fishing, she is in her art studio recreating memories of being on the water and the awe-inspiring places her life has led her.

Photo by Two Fisted Heart Productions

Jessica will be in Middleburg speaking at the National Sporting Library & Museum event, Hooked: Changing Tides, Enduring Bonds on March 18th, 2017. Join us to hear more about her incredible journey.

Most Americans are now familiar with the concept of STEM learning, curriculum that carefully focuses on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math. The goal is to inspire the next generation to work in STEM-related fields and become the vanguard of science and mathematics. The arts community quickly got involved in this goal by adding an A (for Arts) to the equation. Thus, STEAM was born.


STEAM brings a multitude of opportunities to classrooms across the country. Working together, science and art instructors might have their students build a bridge or design a diorama. Theater instructors might team up with math instructors to teach lessons about building sets for a play. Many schools and teachers find they were doing STEAM lessons without realizing it!

Beyond the classroom, museums have also stepped up to provide students with cross-disciplinary activities they wouldn’t otherwise have access to. NSLM is proud to join this educational revolution and show how sporting art is teeming with hands-on learning opportunities.

For example, did you know that there are math lessons hidden inside the artwork in NSLM’s collections?

Finding Sea Hero’s proportions. How do artists use proportion?


Drawing with ratios- just like Da Vinci!

Not just math, either. It turns out that NSLM’s art collections are also chock-full of science!



Visiting students use pieces from the permanent collection to learn about ecosystems, biomes, geographic zones, food chains, and even the water cycle!

How many herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores can you find in the paintings below? How many coniferous and deciduous trees? How many different kinds of waterways?

It’s not just sporting art, it’s natural science!



John Frederick Herring, Jr. (English, 1815-1907) Eight Farmyard Vignettes oil on canvas, 16 x 16 inches. Gift of Mrs. Felicia Warburg Rogan, 2008.
John Bucknell Russell (Scottish, 1820-1893) The Day’s Catch, c. 1865, oil on canvas, 21 1/4 x 29 1/4 inches. Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Timothy Greenan, 2011
Michael Lyne (English, 1912-1989) Frederick M.M. Warburg with Middleburg Hunt at Goose Creek c. 1950, oil on canvas, 16 x 20 inches. Gift of Felicia Warburg Rogan, 2008.

Architects and engineers depend on art and design to create cities, roadways, and space shuttles. Artists, musicians, and designers use geometry, physics, mathematics, and technology to create culture as we know it. These topics are all tied very closely together, so it only makes sense that they appear in NSLM’s collections. But don’t take my word for it, come see for yourself!

Do you know an educator, parent, or PTO member who would like to book one of our STEAM-related tours? Contact Anne Marie Barnes, Clarice & Robert H. Smith Educator, at (540) 687-6542 x25.


Anne Marie Barnes is the Educational Programs Manager and Fellowship Advisor at the National Sporting Library & Museum (NSLM). Her passion for museum work began shortly after graduation with a Bachelor’s degree in History from James Madison University. Between her expeience working at the Fredericksburg Area Museum & Cultural Center and the Washington Heritage Museums, she has done everything from designing summer camps to formulating major fundraisers. Have a question? Contact Anne Marie by e-mail


At the National Sporting Library & Museum (NSLM) we discuss topics relating to equestrian sports as well as turf and field sports—which covers everything from coaching and polo to fly fishing and wing shooting! We represent it all in art and in books. Let’s just say if the Brntes wrote about it, we have it here. And last weekend, more than a dozen carriages and hundreds of people (including staff from Colonial Williamsburg) came to celebrate our first ever “Carriage Day.”

My goal as an Educator for NSLM is to bring these subjects to life. So when I had an opportunity to highlight coaching, I drew my inspiration from two groups that already live and breathe carriages: Colonial Williamsburg and the Piedmont Driving Club.

We were originally set on having Carriage Day in late May. Now, I don’t know if you all remember, but this spring took a long time to warm up. And on May 21 (our initial date), we had to cancel because somehow it was 50 degrees and raining! You know what they say about Virginia weather. If you don’t like it, just wait five minutes!

After a washout, we changed the date to late July, when we were pretty confident we’d have warmer weather. It turns out “warm” was an understatement. If you really want to have a successful Carriage Day, I recommend baking it at 100 degrees for seven hours. It sure worked for us!


Despite temperatures nearing triple digits, folks came pouring in from Middleburg, the D.C. area, and out of state to see the carriages, and for good reason. Of the 16 vehicles present, we covered almost every kind of carriage spanning nearly two centuries! You could see everything from a racing gig and sleigh to a governess cart and an authentic English beer dray. Some of these vehicles rarely make it out of their carriage houses. Others go on dozens of picnic drives a year with the very active Piedmont Driving Club. These owners, drivers, and grooms love what they do, and you can tell in the quality of their sets of wheels.




We also had visitors in our Museum galleries to see some of our carriage-centric artifacts, including our famous silver coach and original coach horn. Hey, it’s not every day you can be serenaded by a curator!



Carriage Day was also a singular opportunity to visit Colonial Williamsburg here in Middleburg! Paul Bennett, CW’s Director of Coach & Livestock, came with two footmen and a pair of refurbished carriages. The trio was a well-oiled machine of precision, knowledge, and humor. Whether our visitors were first-time carriage viewers or drivers with more than 30 years’ experience, anyone talking to them walked away discussing a new tidbit they had learned.


And our lecture hall was filled to capacity for Paul’s talk on the history of carriages dating all the way back to the advent of the wheel. Fortunately for him, wheels no longer have to be carved from stone by hand.

With a small organization like the National Sporting Library & Museum, it took an ‘all hands on deck’ effort with staff, partners, and volunteers to execute an event like this. But even with a rescheduled date and crazy heat, Carriage day turned out to be our biggest educational program to date.

Thanks to Colonial Williamsburg, the Piedmont Driving Club, and all the other partners, volunteers, and members who made it such a success. Drive on!

In preparation for a new school program debuting this fall, I have had the opportunity to get to know two fascinating sources from the F. Ambrose Clark Rare Book Room. Markham’s Masterpiece (1656), and Citizen and Countryman’s Experienced Farrier (1764). Both contain 17th and 18th century medical treatments for horses at a time when horses were necessary for farming, trading, traveling, and going to war.

Markham’s Masterpiece was published in London in 1610, a time during which England was just beginning to emerge from centuries of medieval feudalism and the supreme monarchy of the Tudors and to a lesser extent, the Stuarts. This copy is the eighth edition, printed in 1656. Playwrights, musicians, and authors often depended on wealthy superiors to finance their publications and performances. Gervaise Markham (c. 1568 – 1637), author of Markham’s Masterpiece, likely depended on the patronage of Sir Robert Dormer to publish the volume. He introduces the book with a long, flowery letter dedicating his work to Dormer, making it clear the social difference between them. He also lists a ‘who’s who’ of great minds that the book’s contents are pulled from, including ancient greats like Xenophon and contemporary medical minds such as Camerarius.

Markham dedicates the book to his patrom, Sir Robert Dormer and also insists "what I am, Art, Soule and affectionis onely Yours; and desire to be so esteemed in all my actions". He signs the dedication "Your Honours humble devoted servant, Gervase Markham".

Markham dedicates the book to his noble patron, Sir Robert Dormer, and also insists

“This Booke is but the externall pledge which doth demonstrate the inward obligation of my heart, since what I am, Art, Soule and affection is onely Yours; and desire to be so esteemed in all my actions”.

He signs the dedication “Your Honours humble devoted servant, Gervase Markham”.

One hundred and eight years later in 1764 a new edition, Citizen and Countryman’s Experienced Farrier, was published in the now thriving American colonies. While the treatments for equine ailments remain almost the same, the introduction and forwarding information are markedly different. The first thing I noticed is that they attribute the book to “ J. Markham, G. Jefferies, and Discreet Indians”. Britain and France had just ended a North American turf war, known as the French and Indian War, in which Native Americans played an important part. It’s likely that British colonial troops picked up some medical and veterinary treatments from their native allies, which then made their way into Experienced Farrier.



Not only that, but instead of depending on a Lord’s endorsement or the famous names of horse experts living and dead, Experienced Farrier leans on the opinions of four local men of principle. These gentlemen met in Kennet Township, Pennsylvania and unanimously declared the book to be “of great Service to the Publick in general”- meaning the every day colonial horse owner. The introduction also asserts that the medical treatments within are prescribed out of  . .”a sincere opinion to truth and justice”.

Many scholars agree that heady Enlightenment ideals of justice and the value of common man emerged after the French and Indian War when colonists were beset with unfair taxes and increasing pressure from the English Crown. I was surprised to find how pervasive these attitudes were so early on. Certainly this was not meant to be a rebellious book, yet we see even the title, Citizen and Countryman’s Experienced Farrier, hints towards an understanding that colonists were worthy of education, representation, and respect. It also incorporates remedies and ingredients that are specific to the Western hemisphere, demonstrating that these colonists as not only valuable people, but valuable people who are uniquely American. The American spirit was steadily growing, manifesting itself only 12 years later in the Declaration of Independence.


Anne Marie Barnes is the Educational Programs Manager and Fellowship Advisor at the National Sporting Library & Museum (NSLM). Her passion for museum work began shortly after graduation with a Bachelor’s degree in History from James Madison University. Between her expeience working at the Fredericksburg Area Museum & Cultural Center and the Washington Heritage Museums, she has done everything from designing summer camps to formulating major fundraisers. Have a question? Contact Anne Marie by e-mail

This weekend the Piedmont Driving Club invited me to a picnic drive at Ayrshire Farm in Upperville, Virginia. Fortunately, I had some previous experience riding in a carriage. When my colleagues and I went to Colonial Williamsburg for the Virginia Association of Museums Conference earlier this year we were treated to a private drive through town. Historically, only certain members of society would use vehicles like these refurbished carriages. This is no longer the case, and people of all walks of life participate in driving events across the nation.

I was surprised at how different a drive was in the country versus in town. During the colonial era carriages were often used in town  or for short journeys. The American colonies and early nation had notoriously bad roads. Travel was much smoother by water (ever notice that most colonial capitals were on navigable waterways?). There were few exceptions to this, one of which was our own Loudoun County. Loudouners built – and preserved – over 300 miles of country roads, most of which date to the 18th and 19th centuries. These provide an ideal setting for today’s picnic drives.

in a row
Driving on a private road near Upperville, VA

A few different kinds of carriages were represented during the drive. Carl and Caroline Cox, my generous hosts, drove a wagonette. Wagonettes sport four wheels and seat four, not counting the driver, and can be pulled by two or four horses. Carts have two wheels, one or two occupants, and are usually pulled by one horse. Coaches, which can seat 12, 16, or more, are very heavy and are pulled by larger teams of horses. Coaches were the public transportation of their era and are not taken on picnic drives in the countryside.

Each of the carriages on this drive were a work of art in their own right. And with the exception of cleverly disguised champagne coolers, these vehicles are using the same technology as their 18th century counterparts, including braking systems, building materials, and driving techniques.

rich and molly

I had a wonderful time learning about these carriages and the people who drive them. If you want to know more about wagonettes, carts, coaches, and more, don’t miss Carriage Day at NSLM. We are partnering with the Piedmont Driving Club and Colonial Williamsburg to bring these carriages to you! Over twenty carriages will be displayed (without horses) across our grounds on May 21 from 10 a.m. until 5 p.m. The day will include walking tours, kids activities, an afternoon drive-by, and a keynote talk with Paul Bennett, Colonial Williamsburg’s Director of Coach and Livestock. Yes, it’s all free of charge – Don’t Miss It!

Carriage Day mailer_marks FINAL



Anne Marie Barnes is the Educational Programs Manager and Fellowship Advisor at the National Sporting Library & Museum (NSLM). Her passion for museum work began shortly after graduation with a Bachelor’s degree in History from James Madison University. Between her expeience working at the Fredericksburg Area Museum & Cultural Center and the Washington Heritage Museums, she has done everything from designing summer camps to formulating major fundraisers. Have a question? Contact Anne Marie by e-mail

Winter has finally come to Virginia. As I write this, a frigid fog surrounds the Museum and Library, making the air seem much colder than the reported forty degrees. There’s a certain comfort in this weather, especially if you are able to enjoy it from a warm, well-lit office accompanied by a mug of tea. This is also the kind of weather that begs for a hot meal plucked straight from your childhood- or perhaps plucked straight from the fields outside.2013-01-23 23.17.13

On this particular day I am tempted to join the meal of artist Arthur Fitzwilliam Tait in A Good Time Coming. In it, a gentleman pours port into a camp mug while a guide cooks something awfully tasty over the campfire. Another guide in the background approaches with a fresh catch of fish, but it is left to the viewer to imagine what might be sizzling in the cast-iron skillet, or boiling in the large stock pot.

Detail: Arthur Fitzwilliam Tait (American, 1819-1905) A Good Time Coming, 1862, oil on canvas 20 x 30 inches, Adirondack Museum

Alas, I have no campfire to keep me cozy. I do, however, have a cookbook to direct me in making my own field dinner at home. Field Feast: the Remington Cookbook by Jim and Ann Casada is a newer addition to the Library’s collection. Recipes include chicken-fried venison steak, creamed squirrel, and pheasant paprikash.

Pheasant Paprikash

  • 2tb canola oil
  • 1 large onion, chopped
  • 1 large green pepper, sliced (optional)
  • Paprika – 1 ts or more (use amount you prefer)
  • 1 large fresh tomato (or 1 can tomatoes)
  • Few dashes red pepper
  • Few dashes black pepper
  • 2 pheasants, cut up
  • Salt to taste
  • 2tb flour
  • 1 cup milk

Place oil in Dutch oven and heat. Add onions and saute until tender. Add green pepper slices and cook a few minutes. Add enough paprika to make a deep red color and stir constantly for about 1 minute. Add tomato, a few dashes each of red pepper and black pepper. Place pheasant pieces in Dutch oven and add enough water to cover pheasant. Add salt. Bring to a boil, reduce heat, cover and simmer for 2 hours or until pheasant is tender. Mix flour with cup of milk and add to mixture. Adjust seasonings. Let come to a simmer; do not boil after adding milk. Serve in bowls over noodles of your choice, such as ziti, macaroni, or shells. 

Any takers on trying this recipe? As I understand you can substitute a small chicken or cornish game hens for the pheasant. This could be a new cold weather favorite! For more information on Jim Casada, or to purchase one of his books, follow this link.