This week’s blog is written by National Sporting Library & Museum Intern Finley Stewart.

Finley Stewart was a summer 2018 Photography and Marketing Intern. She is a graduate of The Hill School and Mercersburg Academy and is a rising Sophomore at the College of William and Mary.

Please visit our website to learn more about NSLM’s internship opportunities.


I am lucky enough to have grown up in Middleburg, just a block away from the National Sporting Library & Museum. After spending eighteen years in this one-stoplight town, I felt pretty confident that I knew every stick and stone, but then I stumbled upon the NSLM website on a chilly Wednesday in January. I realized that I was completely ignorant to the most interesting attraction of Middleburg; the artistic specificity and depth presented in the National Sporting Library & Museum is unparalleled to anything I had seen before. I was delighted to learn that there was a summer internship program offered. I promptly applied and was accepted.

On my first day, I spent a full fifteen minutes looking at Shark with his Trainer Price by George Stubbs, a painting  that was on view at NSLM as part a the traveling exhibition organized by Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, A Sporting Vision: The Paul Mellon Collection of British Sporting Art from the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts. I had never spent so much time in front of one piece of art, and in my silence, I discovered the artist’s voice. Although it was a short interaction in a busy day, it made all the difference. During my six-week internship, I realized that a patient, learned respect for art – whether  a painting, sculpture, or photograph – is specific to the experience at the National Sporting Library & Museum. I was fortunate enough to have the opportunity to appreciate not only the Museum as it is presented to the public, but the ins and outs of the permanent collection and its documentation process.

Paintings on view in permanent collection gallery  – right: John Bucknell Russell (Scottish, 1820-1893), The Day’s Catch, 1864, 21 x 29 inches, Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Timothy J. Greenan, 2011, photo by Finley Stewart

My internship was a hybrid between digital photography and marketing. When I was not actively photographing, I had a front row seat to the workings of the Museum, as my station was situated between the offices of Curator of Permanent Collections Nicole Stribling and George L. Ohrstrom, Jr. Curator of Art Claudia Pfeiffer. Through watching them navigate everything from the climate of the Museum to possible vendors, I realized all the moving parts that have to come together to present a united front. In other words, the introspective, didactic experience I had with the painting on my first day was anything but coincidental; it was carefully orchestrated by the staff of the NSLM.

Herbert Haseltine, (American, 1877-1962), Percherons: Messaline and Her Foal, 1957, bronze on marble base, 11 1/2 x 14 x 6 inches, Gift of Jacqueline Ohrstrom, 2011, photo by Finley Stewart

For the first project of my internship, Ms. Pfeiffer taught me the groundwork of photographing art. Until this point, my photo experience ranged from film to digital, yearbooks to art magazines, and I felt as though I knew everything there was to know. My perceived omniscience was interrupted when I stepped into the studio with Claudia.

I realized my work was entirely creatively based, and that there was a whole other realm of factual photographic documentation. The priority was to make the photograph as close to the actual piece of art at hand— an objective only achieved with meticulous light set-ups and positioning. The first collection I worked with was by Reuben Ward Binks. This collection varied in size and dimension, thus requiring constant adjustment of the lights and camera.

Reuben Ward Binks (English, 1880-1950), Black Labrador with Pheasant in Water, watercolor on paper heightened with gouache, 10 ½ x 13 ½ inches, Bequest of Elizabeth D. Clark, 2017, photo by Finley Stewart

After I completed photographing the forty-five watercolors, Ms. Pfeiffer taught me how to properly post-process them. Previously, I had only used Adobe Photoshop® CC to add imagination to my photographs, but Claudia taught me how to revert back to a realistic standard. As a result of the diligent set up and careful post-processing, my photographs held a sense of realism and authenticity that they never had before.

Michael Lyne (English, 1912-1989) Middleburg Hunt, Full Cry with Blue Ridge in the Distance, 1950, oil on canvas, 16 x 20 inches, Gift of Mrs. Felicia Warburg Rogan, 2008, photo by Finley Stewart

For my next project, I was assigned a collection of sculptures. Photographing 3D objects proved to be an entirely new ball game. With more volume and a curving surface, there was more opportunity for unwanted shadow and distortion.

Edward Marshall Boehm (American, 1913-1969), Percheron Work Horse, “H.S. Finney from Maryland Draft Horse Breeders Association,” porcelain, 10 x 12 x 4 ½ inches, Gift of Marge Dance and family of the late Humphrey Finney, 1995, photo by Stewart Finley

Ms. Pfeiffer and I had to get creative to bounce light onto the sculpture to, ironically, produce the most realistic picture we could. During this session, I realized the essence of art photography: it is not the absence of creativity and imagination, but the application of innovative thinking behind the camera to produce a realistic photograph. The artistry is more elusive: the creativity is not obvious in the final product, but extremely present in its preparation and implementation.

This past month-and-a-half has been invaluable to my photography knowledge, creative experience, and art appreciation. I’m eternally grateful to Claudia Pfeiffer for taking the time to teach me how to photograph realistically, while slipping in creativity when needed. Looking forward, I primarily photograph outside, and with more light and color there is opportunity for creative voice. Now I will be careful keep Ms. Pfeiffer’s commitment to realism in mind, certain to prioritize the accuracy of the subject above all else. – Finley Stewart, July 2018

J. Clayton Bright (American, b. 1946), Red Fox (Vulpes Fulva), bronze, 14 x 31 x 6 inches, Gift of an Anonymous Donor, 2013, photo by Finley Stewart

 

Advertisements

There are five striking oils depicting foxhunting painted entirely in black and white in the National Sporting Library & Museum’s permanent collection. The technique is called en grisaille (pronounced “ohnˈ griˈzɑ yə”), a French term meaning in gray tones. Created with mixtures of black and white pigments, these types of paintings date back to the Middle Ages.

George Wright (English, 1860-1942), A Treed Fox, oil on canvas, en grisaille, 17 x 25 inches, Gift of Mrs. Felicia Warburg Rogan, 2008

Created by George Wright (1860-1942), the paintings were among fifteen important British sporting artworks donated to the NSLM by Felicia Warburg Rogan in 2008. Surprisingly little is known about Wright’s life and teaching. The artist, however, left behind a considerable body of work and was acknowledged as one of the top sporting artists of his day by circa 1900.

Many of Wright’s en grisaille subjects are believed to have been produced early in his career for reproduction as illustrations. Working in gray tones was a practical choice for these types of works. There was no need to use expensive color pigments if they were not intended to be seen. Painting in grayscale also allowed for better control of contrasts, shades, and tones. As an example, NSLM has a sixth painting by George Wright done in color that is an almost identical scene to the monochromatic A Treed Fox. This allows the opportunity to make a direct comparison of Wright’s color and black and white techniques.

George Wright (English, 1860-1942), A Treed Fox, oil on canvas, 13 1/2 x 20 inches, Gift of Mrs. Felicia Warburg Rogan, 2008
Left: Detail of Treed Fox, color version; Center: Detail of Treed Fox, color version converted to grayscale; Right: Detail of Treed Fox, en grisaille painting

On the left is a detail of the color painting; in the center is the color version converted to grayscale; and on the right is the actual black and white work. The composition in color is more painterly with a nuanced palette and brushstrokes. Reproduced in black and white though, it becomes muddy, and the details are difficult to see. Where the reproduction fails, the painting on the right succeeds; it has a refined illustrative quality with crisper lines and higher contrasts.

The obvious and purposeful difference between the way Wright painted the two versions reinforces the idea that the en grisaille works were intended for reproduction. To-date NSLM’s compositions have not been found reproduced, but they tell stories in their own right. Two are the same size and bear inscriptions on the bottom left corner, “In at the Death” and “The Kennels.”

George Wright (English, 1860-1942), In at the Death, oil on canvas, en grisaille, 18 x 27 inches, Gift of Mrs. Felicia Warburg Rogan, 2008

In the first, the huntsman presents the brush (fox’s tail) to the lady wearing a bowler hat and riding aside. The recipient of the trophy was chosen by the Master of Foxhounds to reward participants who were skilled riders and kept at the head of the hunt field. The tradition of presenting the fox mask and brush has today become censured, but it is worthy to note that it was done with a sense of deference to the fox.

“Poor Reynard [“reynard” is French for “fox”], his day is done! No more wild raids on the sleeping countryside; no more slaughter in hen house or rabbit warren…Off from your horse, Mr. Huntsman, for the trophies of so gallant a beast are worth the saving,” wrote B. Fletcher Robinson in Sporting Pictures to describe a painting titled Killed in the Quarry by George Wright. (This 1902 folio sized art book held in the NSLM’s F. Ambrose Clark Rare Book Room was published in celebration of English country sports with works “reproduced in colour by the newest and most perfect process of chromo-lithography.”)

George Wright (English, 1860-1942), At the Kennels, oil on canvas, en grisaille, 18 x 27 inches, Gift of Mrs. Felicia Warburg Rogan, 2008

The second en grisaille painting in the NSLM’s pair, “At The Kennels,shows the hounds obediently following the huntsman to the kennel gate, as the Master looks on and a groom has charge of the horses. The likeness of the huntsman is similar to the one depicted in The Treed Fox discussed earlier and two other en grisaille works in NSLM’s holdings. These all show instances in which the fox is just out of reach of the hound pack.

George Wright (English, 1860-1942), Out of Reach, A Fox at Bay on a High Wall, c. 1884, oil on canvas, en grisaille, 16 x 24 inches, Gift of Mrs. Felicia Warburg Rogan, 2008
George Wright (English, 1860-1942), Closing In, c. 1884, oil on canvas, en grisaille, 16 x 24 inches, Gift of Mrs. Felicia Warburg Rogan, 2008

Wright is believed to have hunted with the Surrey and Old Burstow, and it is quite evident from his works that he had an intimate understanding of foxhunting and its human, equine, and canine participants. Whether or not he intended for the figures to be likenesses of recognizable individuals is unknown. He included them in other hunt scenes over time. The allure of George Wright’s en grisaille compositions evoke nostalgia for a bygone era and a sport that at the same time remains universal and timeless for those who still participate in it today.


pfeifferClaudia Pfeiffer has been the George L. Ohrstrom, Jr. Curator of Art at the National Sporting Library & Museum since the position was underwritten by the George L. Ohrstrom, Jr. Foundation in 2012. Her primary focus is the research, design, interpretation, writing, and installation of exhibitions. E-mail Claudia at cpfeiffer@nationalsporting.org

Mr. Paul Mellon (1907-1999), a revered philanthropist and sportsman, was a lifelong incurable collector. He and his first wife Mary famously purchased their first George Stubbs painting  in 1936 – Pumpkin with a Stable-Lad, 1774, now in the Yale Center for British Art collection.

Pumpkin with a Stable-lad
George Stubbs (British, 1724–1806), Pumpkin with a Stable-lad, 1774, oil on panel, 32 3/8 x 39 7/8 inches, Yale Center for British Art, Paul Mellon Collection [ image source: http://collections.britishart.yale.edu/vufind/Record/1667168 ]
At the height of his collecting, Mr. Mellon was acquiring in the neighborhood of 200 works a year. By 1955 he and his second wife Rachel “Bunny” Mellon converted the Brick House, a former residence on their Rokeby Farm property in Upperville, Virginia into a library and art gallery to house their growing British sporting art collection.

Another collecting interest that Mr. Mellon developed was in vintage and antique weathervanes. He loaned one of his early acquisitions, a 19th century stamped copper cow, to the Popular Art in America exhibition held at the Brooklyn Museum in 1939. “Mr. Mellon loved the sculptural form of the weathervanes,” noted Beverly Carter, his former administrative assistant in 2002. “He used most of these pieces in the same way that he used the sculpture from his collection, displaying them on tabletops or on freestanding pedestals throughout the Brick House.”

A Horse, with Left Front Leg Raised
A.L. Jewell and Co., Waltham, Mass., c. 1860, A Horse, with Left Front Leg Raised, copper, 18 x 20 inches, Bequest of Paul Mellon, 1999

In 1998 Mr. Mellon generously donated the first of several weathervanes to the National Sporting Library & Museum to adorn the main cupola of the current Library building, then under construction. Carter made arrangements to have the piece transferred from  the basement of the Brick House so that it could be installed while a construction crane was on site.

A Horse Jumping a Post and Rail Gate
A.L. Jewell and Co., Waltham, Mass., third quarter, 19th century, A Horse Jumping a Post and Rail Gate with directionals, molded and gilded copper with ridged sheet copper mane and tail, 30 x 36 inches, Donated by Paul Mellon, 1998

When Mr. Mellon passed away in 1999, he bequeathed an additional eleven weathervanes that he had collected between 1973 and 1991, one of which was a life estate bequest. The latter and another weathervane bequeathed by Mrs. Mellon came to NSLM when she passed away in 2014, bringing the collection to a total of thirteen objects.  Hound Chasing a Fox adorned the Hunter Barn at Rokeby Farm, and is a little worse for wear. Remnants of gold leaf are still visible, however it is oxidized and has several holes that seem to have been the result of target practice!

A Hound Chasing a Fox
L.W. Cushing & Sons, Waltham, Mass., third quarter, 19th century, Hound Chasing a Fox with directionals (detail), copper with gold leaf, 22 x 52 inches, Bequest of Paul Mellon, 2014

Several of the weathervanes are on display in the Library and Museum, and the collection as a whole provides a significant overview of desirable forms, subject matter,  finishes, and sizes produced in the 19th century by a variety of manufacturers, some unknown. Not surprisingly there are five weathervanes that are equine-related, including the two previously mentioned, a mid-19th century trotter and rider, a full-body figure horse and jockey, and a highly-detailed child and pony cart manufactured by J. L. Mott Ironworks, NY, c. 1893. The three latter ones adorn the Library’s Paul Mellon Foyer.

Child and Pony Cart
J.L. Mott Ironworks, New York, c. 1893, Child and Pony Cart, sheet-copper and zinc, 16 x 24 inches, Bequest of Paul Mellon, 1999

Farm animals and wildlife subjects that Mr. Mellon added to the collection include a running fox, a small ram, a large ram, a bull, and the massive pig that adorns the stacks in the Main Reading Room. Mr. Mellon was particularly fond of the pig which he displayed on a table in the Abbey Room, the main library at the Brick House.

Main Reading Room
The Library’s Main Reading Room (prior to the recently completed book re-cataloging project)
A Pig
E.G. Washburne and Company, N.Y., late 19th century, A Pig, copper, 24 x 46 inches, Bequest of Paul Mellon, 1999

Another fine example is the 26-inch long copper and gold-leaf grasshopper that is on view opposite the NSLM Executive Director’s office. Mr. Mellon originally had it installed outdoors at his private airstrip for several years before having it regilt and placed on display at the Brick House as well.

A Grasshopper
American, 19th Century, A Grasshopper, copper with gold leaf, 11 x 26 inches, Bequest of Paul Mellon, 1999

In an interview “Paul Mellon on Collecting Art,” before his passing, Mr. Mellon was seated in the Brick House surrounded by the iconic collection he had amassed over several decades and planned to gift to several public institutions. Behind his left shoulder was his famed first Stubbs painting of Pumpkin and over his right – a horse weathervane with left front leg raised, most likely the one now in the National Sporting Library & Museum’s collection. When asked to give advice on collecting, Mr. Mellon said about his lifelong passion, “Immerse yourself in whatever you are interested in,” jokingly adding, “but if you’re very lucky, you won’t do it at all.”

20180423_190456web
Newly designed sticker to be given to NSLM members as they join or renew and will be available for purchase in the Museum gift shop.

I will be adding this little gem to my sticker collection. The image is based on the outline of the weathervane which sits atop the NSLM’s Library building.  Since it has the distinction of being the only weathervane that Mr. Mellon gifted to NSLM during his lifetime, it is fitting that we introduce this graphic while we are the opening venue for  the exhibition of the Paul Mellon British Sporting Art collection traveling from Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Sporting Vision: The Paul Mellon Collection of British Sporting Art from the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts.


pfeifferClaudia Pfeiffer has been the George L. Ohrstrom, Jr. Curator of Art at the National Sporting Library & Museum since the position was underwritten by the George L. Ohrstrom, Jr. Foundation in 2012. Her primary focus is the research, design, interpretation, writing, and installation of exhibitions. E-mail Claudia at cpfeiffer@nationalsporting.org

Working as a professional portrait and animal artist in the 1800s was not an unusual occurrence, unless you were a woman. Mrs. Susan C. Waters (1823-1900) was among the first female painters in the United States to be successful supporting both herself and her husband during her lifetime.

When her female contemporaries were masking their gender by purposely signing their works with initials instead of first names, Waters preferred to sign her paintings “Mrs. Susan C. Waters” or “Mrs. S.C. Waters” in a legible, cursive hand. Her early portraits were signed on the reverse, inscribed with the names of the sitters, and the date. When she reemerged as an animal, landscape, and still life painter, the artist signed her paintings on the front for the rest of her career, a trailblazer making her mark during the birth of the women’s suffrage movement.

Waters sig comparison
Comparison of Susan C. Waters signatures: Left – b/w image of verso of portrait of Helen Kingman, 1845, #17 in 1980 exhibition catalogue for “Susan C. Waters, 19th-Century Itinerant Painter;” Right – signature on recto of Susan Catherine Moore Waters (American, 1823-1900), Chickens and Raspberries, c.1880, NSLM Collection, Gift of The Phelan Collection, 2012.

Waters was born Susan Catherine Moore in Binghamton, New York, in 1823 and lived in the Quaker community of Friendsville, Pennsylvania. At the age of fifteen she attended the local female seminary school there. Notably, Susan showed early artistic talent earning tuition for both herself and her sister by painting copies for the Natural History Department. Little is known about her formal artistic training, although according to her obituary, printed in  the Bordentown Register on July 27, 1900, “she was considered a prodigy by her teachers” at the seminary.

In 1841 Susan married William Church Waters, also from the Friendsville Quaker community, and they remained together for 52 years until his death in 1893. Her husband encouraged Susan to become an itinerant portrait painter. She produced numerous folk art portraits between 1843 and 1846, traveling throughout northern Pennsylvania and Southern New York with her husband. Several of her portraits show an early facility for portraying animals.

E10377.jpg
Susan Catherine Moore Waters (American, 1823 – 1900), Brothers, c. 1845 (and detail on right), oil on canvas, 44 x 34 15/16 inches, National Gallery of Art, Gift of Edgar William and Bernice Chrysler Garbisch
E10377.jpg
Susan Catherine Moore Waters (American, 1823 – 1900), Henry L. Wells, 1845 (and detail on right), oil on canvas, 45 1/4 x 28 3/8 inches, National Gallery of Art, Gift of Edgar William and Bernice Chrysler Garbisch

The last known portrait during this early phase of Water’s career is dated 1846. Her husband William’s failing health began to impede their travels. With the rise of photography people were also beginning to turn away from commissioning portraits and towards sitting for photographs. Mr. and Mrs. Waters capitalized on this by becoming ambrotype and daguerreotype photographers for the next decade.

Susan also taught painting and drawing, but her focus returned to her own work. A revealing letter she wrote from Friendsville in 1851, to the Honorary Secretary of the American Art-Union in New York requesting a reference, provides a glimpse into the couple’s circumstances and her goals for her career. She noted:

Owing to my husband’s ill health I am prevented from following my usual occupation. (i.e. teaching painting) therefore I am obliged to seek some other way of turning my time to profit, in order to keep up with our expenses…by the sale of oil paintings.

Susan made no mention of her time as an itinerant painter but instead referred to two landscapes she had “sketched from nature” to submit to the Art-Union. There is no record of her works having been accepted, but landscapes that Waters painted and sold during this time set the stage for her artistic transition.

3195774_1 crop
Susan Caroline Moore Waters (American, 1823-1900), Landscape with Cows and Stream, oil on canvas, 29 3/4 x 41 1/2 inches (sight size), signed Mrs. Susan C. Waters, lr [image source: Cowan’s Auctions on-line catalog, Fine and Decorative Art: Live Salesroom Auction, 3/10/18, lot 10]
The Waters required additional income to complete a home they were building in the early 1850s in the Quaker community of Bordentown, New Jersey, although they did not settle there until over a decade later in 1866. It is here where Waters became known for her paintings of sheep, other domesticated and wild animals, and still lifes with the constant encouragement and support of her ailing husband. She kept her studio in Bordentown for the next thirty years. It is also here that she became active with the New Jersey Woman Suffrage Association, of which she was elected recording secretary in 1871.

In 1876 Waters continued to blaze new trails as an exhibitor at the prestigious International Exhibition held in Philadelphia that year in celebration of the 100th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence.  Her oil painting, Still Life – Mallard Ducks, is listed as no. 1075 in the catalogue with an asterisk next to the title indicating the painting was for sale.

1876 catalog page with cover and gallery pic
Official Catalogue of US International Exhibition 1876 published by John R. Nagle and Company. Left: Cover; Right Top: Dept. IV. – Art – United States. p. 47 and detail; Right Bottom: “Art Gallery, Or Memorial Hall” illustration, frontispiece for “Part II. Art Gallery, Annexes, and Outdoor Works of Art.” [ source: https://archive.org/details/officialcatalogu00cent ]
The National Sporting Library & Museum’s oil painting, Chickens and Raspberries,  c. 1880 shows how refined Waters’ technique had become.

Susan Catherine Moore Waters (American, 1823-1900), Chickens and Raspberries, c.1880
oil on canvas, 24 x 16 1/2 inches, NSLM Collection, Gift of The Phelan Collection, 2012

Mrs. Susan B. Waters – artist, wife, and suffragette – died in 1900 at the age of 77 after a long and storied career. She continued to paint until a few months prior to her passing. “Her character was as beautiful as her paintings… her talent she could not bequeath,” noted her  July 27, 1900 obituary.  Waters left behind a body of work, a reputation, and a legacy that made her an icon ahead of her time as well as a noteworthy figure in women’s history and art history.

6756_3 crop
Mrs. Susan C. Waters, c. 1880, Bordentown Historical Society, Bordentown, NJ. [ image source: https://www.mullenbooks.com/pictures/6756_3.jpg?v=1487612703 ]

pfeifferClaudia Pfeiffer has been the George L. Ohrstrom, Jr. Curator of Art at the National Sporting Library & Museum since the position was underwritten by the George L. Ohrstrom, Jr. Foundation in 2012. Her primary focus is the research, design, interpretation, writing, and installation of exhibitions. E-mail Claudia at cpfeiffer@nationalsporting.org

“‘The Winnah’ Alligator – Horse of Iron” was the inscription that sporting artist and illustrator Paul Brown chose to describe Alligator, the bay gelding that he noted won not one, not two, not three, but an unbelievable FOUR steeplechases after various jockeys fell and remounted.  The 1928 West Hills Plate, 1929 Maryland Cup, 1930 International Cup at Grasslands, and the Millbrook Hunt Steeplechase are annotated in the lower margin of one of Brown’s illustrations for his book, Ups and Downs (1936). The artist sketched some of Alligator’s gravity-defying crashes and wins for the book as well as his earlier publication, Spills and Thrills (1933), and his captions present entertaining and informative details.

SONY DSC
Paul Desmond Brown (American, 1893-1958) The “Winnah,” 1936, pencil on paper, inscribed:  The “Winnah” Alligator – Horse of Iron – | Fell   Millbrook  – and won | ”        Maryland – ”       ” |” Grasslands – ”       ” | ” or Lost Rider at West Hills and won  | Paul Brown ’36. Donated by Boots Wright in memory of Mr. and Mrs. Richard E. Riegel, 2013.

The first race was for the West Hills Plate, the seventh annual meet held on Long Island on November 10, 1928. Brown’s drawing shows jockey Frederic C. Thomas going over the horse’s head at the first fence, swinging underneath its neck, and desperately trying to hold on before losing his grip. “An exhibition of indomitable courage was witnessed here this afternoon,” noted the next day’s article in The Brooklyn Daily Eagle.

SONY DSC
Paul Desmond Brown (American, 1893-1958) Alligator hit 1st, 1933, pencil and ink on paper, inscribed: Alligator hit 1st – Freddie Thomas started nose dive – caught mounts neck – swung under it – horse stopped – Freddie remounted – and won – West Hills Plate, West Hills 1928. Donated by Boots Wright in memory of Mr. and Mrs. Richard E. Riegel, 2013.

Alligator won the thirty-first running of the Meadow Brook Cup with Lyman Wright up in 1929 without a fall. Brown’s exquisite illustration of the race held on sportsman F. Ambrose Clark’s estate captures a pivotal moment described in an article in the September 29, 1929 The Baltimore Sun: “…Hackenthorpe stayed with his rivals three-quarters of the way, but when the famous stone wall appeared again Hackenthorpe did not have enough left to get over and the race was left to Alligator and Reel Foot.”

SONY DSC
Paul Desmond Brown (American, 1893-1958) The Hole in the Wall, 1933, pencil and ink on paper,  inscribed: The Hole in the Wall – Alligator, Reel Foot, Hackenthorpe – Lyman Wright, Bill Streett, Charlie Cushman up – how they drove for the gap in the 12th – Alligator won the race – Reel Foot was 2nd – Hackenthorpe fell Meadow Brook Cup 1929 Donated by Boots Wright in memory of Mr. and Mrs. Richard E. Riegel,  2013.

Brown did not illustrate Alligator’s famed April 1929 Maryland Hunt Cup win in his books, but the wife of the horse’s trainer Harry Plumb found it worthy of a poetic tribute. Plumb was also the father of one of Alligator’s jockeys, Charles T. Plumb:*

From out the ruck / Of many a name, / “Alligator” / He raced to fame.

The Maryland Hunt! / The ‘CUP’ the prize: / “They’re off” the cry, / And then, surprise….

At number-two fence, / That timbered rail, / Alligator fell: / “Too bad” they wail.

But ‘blood’ will not tell / In man or beast. / And fame is made /At racing feast….

For quick as a flash / From starting gun, / Alligator’s up…./ And starts to run.

The ‘field’ out there / In front so far: / A hopeless chase / For this great star.

But fence by fence, / By hand and ride, / Alligator / In glorious stride

Picks up the loss / And leads them all / He wins the race: / “Hurrah” they call.

She continued with a description of a repeat performance by Alligator:

Then, once more, this / “Thorobred Crack” / Surprised the fans / At Grasslands track:

Fencing so clean / With jump and stride. / His praises sung / On every side.

But here, again, / This grand horse fell, / Next fence at last, / Pell-mell! Pell-mell!

Then up again / ‘Tis writ as history, / He galloped on / To cheers and victory.

– “Salute to a Great Horseman” by Elaine T. Plumb, The Chronicle, Dec. 31, 1948

SONY DSC
Paul Desmond Brown (American, 1893-1958) Dramatic, 1933, pencil and ink on paper, inscribed: Dramatic – I’ll say so – next last fence – Alligator fell – Waverly Star dog tired and went down in the mud too tired to get up – Charlie Plum wiped mud and blood from face – remounted – went on – won. Grasslands 1930. Donated by Boots Wright in memory of Mr. and Mrs. Richard E. Riegel, 2013.

Approximately 8,000 spectators witnessed the running of the grueling first International Cup held at the Grasslands Downs Course, TN, in 1930. Every single one of the seventeen entries either fell or pulled up. Brown’s sketch shows Alligator falling on his front knees going over the 25th jump and Waverly Star slipping.  “Charlie Plum [sic] wiped mud and blood from face – remounted – went on – won,” wrote Brown in the caption describing the nail-biting ending of the race.

2009.21.3 web.jpg
Franklin Brooke Voss, (American, 1880-1953) Alligator, 1929, oil on canvas, 28 x 36 inches, Gift of the children of Peter Winants, Sr., 2009

Viewing American sporting artist Franklin Brooke Voss’s serene 1929 portrait of Alligator in light of Paul Brown’s illustrations with the horse’s striking career in mind –  is transformative. This is Alligator, “Horse of Iron,” and one of the most hardcore steeplechase horses that ever lived.

* Errata: The poem was previously incorrectly attributed to the wife of jockey and Meadowbrook Huntsman Charles T. Plumb.


pfeifferClaudia Pfeiffer has been the George L. Ohrstrom, Jr. Curator of Art at the National Sporting Library & Museum since the position was underwritten by the George L. Ohrstrom, Jr. Foundation in 2012. Her primary focus is the research, design, interpretation, writing, and installation of exhibitions. E-mail Claudia at cpfeiffer@nationalsporting.org

If you are at all familiar with the village of Middleburg, you have likely seen iconic images of the Middleburg Hunt and hound parade in the snow. It just doesn’t feel like the holiday season has begun in this region until Christmas in Middleburg takes place on the first Saturday every December. The celebration brings people from far and wide to enjoy this spectacle as well as the traditional afternoon Christmas parade with brightly-colored floats, a variety of horse-drawn vehicles, and other animals. Even Santa Claus arrives on a four-in-hand.

Although we did not experience a magical snow this past Saturday, there was no shortage of holiday cheer for the festivities. Partnering with the National Sporting Library & Museum, Colonial Williamsburg’s Director of Coach and Livestock Paul Bennett brought and drove the historic city’s Wythe Chariot, a highlight of the parade.

Partnering with the NSLM, Colonial Williamsburg made a special appearance in the Middleburg Christmas Parade on December 2, 2017, with the recently-restored Wythe Chariot driven by Director of Coach and Livestock Paul Bennett.

The royal blue livery brought to mind a wintry, 19th-century French print in the NSLM’s collection…

(after) Henri d’Ainecy, Comte de Montpezat (French, 1817 – 1859), La vie d’un Gentilhomme en toutes Saisons: Hiver (one of a set of four), hand-colored aquatint, 21 ½ x 30 ¾ inches, engraved by Jazet, Paris; published by Goupil et Vibert, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Norman R. Bobins, 2012

Subtitled Hiver (Winter), the hand-colored aquatint is one of a set of four in the series, La vie d’un Gentilhomme en toutes Saisons (The Life of a Gentleman in All Seasons). First published in 1846, each print depicts a different season of carriage driving in France. The original paintings from which the engravings were made were by Henri Auguste d’ Ainecy, Comte de Montpezat, a French sporting and animal artist.

(after) Henri d’Ainecy, Comte de Montpezat (French, 1817 – 1859) La vie d’un Gentilhomme en toutes Saisons: Hiver (Detail)

The snowy scene shows two postilions, each riding the near post-horse of a double team at a fast pace. (It is typical to ride the left horse of a pair since horses are trained to be mounted from the near side.) The riders are wearing the unmistakable rigid boots of their profession to protect their legs from being injured. Posting was a common mode of transit in England and on the Continent before trains. Postilions were hired through postmasters and traveled from post house to post house, on successive legs of a journey. Tired riders and horses were replaced as needed along the way.

(after) Henri d’Ainecy, Comte de Montpezat (French, 1817 – 1859), La vie d’un Gentilhomme en toutes Saisons: Hiver (Detail)

The carriage depicted is a shooting phaeton, a four-wheel open carriage with room for four passengers, game, and a compartment with ventilation under the seat to transport gun dogs.  Snow flies up from the wheels as the sportsmen return from a successful day afield. The gamekeeper, bundled up in a fur coat with a powder flask at his side, points to a village in the distance. A huntsman and the gentleman holding a shotgun enjoy a cigar while the fourth companion wearing a buttoned-up frock coat and a brimmed cap, crosses his arms, bracing himself against the cold. A gun dog peeks out from the gentleman’s lap blanket while another alert dog is at the front of the carriage. The vehicle is filled with a mixed bag  – a plentiful variety of hare, pheasant, duck, partridge, snipe, and stag – and game bags hang from the back.

Although it’s not a one-horse open sleigh, the scene conjures a line from the classic American melody, Jingle Bells. “Dashing through the snow…”  Carriages, wheeled and sleighs alike, are icons of a long-gone era, but still strongly resonate with the sentiment of the season. Thank you to our friends at Colonial Williamsburg for journeying to Middleburg and “making spirits bright.”

Wishing you all a Merry Christmas and Happy Holidays!


pfeifferClaudia Pfeiffer has been the George L. Ohrstrom, Jr. Curator of Art at the National Sporting Library & Museum since the position was underwritten by the George L. Ohrstrom, Jr. Foundation in 2012. Her primary focus is the research, design, interpretation, writing, and installation of exhibitions. E-mail Claudia at cpfeiffer@nationalsporting.org

The Horse and the Camera from the Judith and Jo Tartt, Jr. Photography Collection
exhibition on view at the National Sporting Library & Museum through January 7, 2018

Whether you love or hate taking selfies, it is hard to imagine a time before photography and the easy access we now have to the news, sports, and images of them. From the first static images, human imagination has turned the camera towards everything from the epic to the mundane. A breakneck evolution of photography has continued to advance since the first grainy, permanent photographic image was produced circa 1827. Developments saw stiff portraits become sharp-as-a-tack studies of motion within 50 years, and the twentieth century brought the wide-spread distribution of them. The history of the development of equestrian sport photography may be traced with photographs in The Horse and the Camera from the Judith and Jo Tartt, Jr. Photography Collection exhibition on view at the National Sporting Library & Museum through January 7, 2018.

Beginning with the patenting of the tintype, by American innovator Hamilton Smith in 1856, photographic portraiture was quickly popularized across the United States. The medium allowed for the production of an image within minutes and gave rise to itinerant photographers who traveled from town-to-town, capturing affordable portraits of people and their prized possessions such as the horse.

Gentleman and Lady in Carriage
Gentleman and Lady in Carriage, c. 1880, tintype, 6 1/2 x 8 1/2 inches, on loan from the Judith & Jo Tartt, Jr. Photography Collection

It was difficult to produce sharp images with early methods of photography, since they required the sitter to be motionless for extended periods of time. The very nature of the medium dictated that the results were stiff and posed compositions.

How then did we come to really understand what a horse looks like when it is jumping, trotting, or galloping? The immediate answer that might come to mind is the name, Eadweard Muybridge. His 1877-8 series of photographic studies revolutionized the way the world views the horse, other animals, and humans in motion.

Muybridge
Eadweard Muybridge (English, 1830-1904), Horse and Rider, c. 1890, collotype, 19 x 24 1/8 inches, on loan from the Judith & Jo Tartt, Jr. Photography Collection

As the story goes, famed photographer Muybridge was hired by the entrepreneur and horse breeder Leland Stanford, auspiciously to settle a bet about whether or not all four hooves of a galloping horse were simultaneously off the ground at any time during the sequence of the gait. The question was a photographic paradox. In the 1870’s, the medium remained an inherently slow and precise process. How could one reliably capture motion with it?

In response, Muybridge devised an industrious and pioneering setup of twelve large-format glass plate cameras spaced apart (The example above is a later twenty-camera version). He outfitted the cameras with innovative and reliable shutters of his own design, tripwires, and plates coated with an extremely light-sensitive emulsion. The combination made a 1/500th second exposure possible.

The technological breakthrough led to a cascade of other camera and film innovations within the following decades, for both consumer-grade and professional equipment and film.

The first photo-finishes forever changed the way races were decided…

Harness Racing
Harness Race Finish, Roosevelt Raceway, 1945, gelatin silver print, 10 x 8 inches, photo Milton Platnick, Hempstead, Long Island, NY, on loan from the Judith & Jo Tartt, Jr. Photography Collection

The implementation of the wirephoto service nationally by the 1920s made it possible to disseminate notable and newsworthy images across the country with ease…

Cossack Jump
Miss Barbara Worth Performs a Cossack Jump, 1933, gelatin silver print, 7 x 9 inches, photo wire caption: Spectacular Jumps This Girl’s Forte. Miss Barbara Worth not only is prominent in California society, but is known as the owner and trainer of some of the best jumping horses in the state. She does more than train, however– she rides them. This photo shows Miss Worth with shortened stirrups executing a difficult Cossack jump. 6-26-33, on loan from the Judith & Jo Tartt, Jr. Photography Collection

…and the result in the twentieth century was that sports photography overtook illustration.

Pimlico Steeplechase, “Mergler Takes a Spill Off Capital Torch Song,” 1941, gelatin silver print marked with pen, crop marks, and gouache, 9 x 12 5/8 inches, on loan from the Judith & Jo Tartt, Jr. Photography Collection

The history of the development of equestrian sport photography is just one of the many threads that runs through The Horse and the Camera from the Judith and Jo Tartt, Jr. Photography Collection exhibition. The intimate survey is comprised of almost 70 tintypes, photogravures, albumen prints, gelatin silver prints, and collotypes created from the 1870s to the 1960s. Works are on loan from the Judith and Jo Tartt, Jr. Photography Collection of over 150 vintage and antique photographic images. The exhibition is made possible through the generous support of Mr. & Mrs. Charles T. Akre.

To learn more about the exhibition, join us for an Evening with The Horse & the Camera on Friday, September 29, 2017 at 6:30 pm for a reception and exhibition talk. Photography expert Jo Tartt, Jr. and the NSLM’s George L. Ohrstrom, Jr. Curator of Art Claudia Pfeiffer will explore how advancements in cameras, black & white film, and stop-motion photography captured human imagination and the horse at rest and in motion. RSVP to ABarnes@NationalSporting.org or 540.687.6542 ext. 25


pfeifferClaudia Pfeiffer has been the George L. Ohrstrom, Jr. Curator of Art at the National Sporting Library & Museum since the position was underwritten by the George L. Ohrstrom, Jr. Foundation in 2012. Her primary focus is the research, design, interpretation, writing, and installation of exhibitions. E-mail Claudia at cpfeiffer@nationalsporting.org