For over half the existence of the United States, horses were ubiquitous.  They served as the main source of transportation, and were essential to the military and to speedy communication.  They labored in agriculture, and as freight haulers.  Horses were common in everyday life.  It wasn’t until 1909 that President Taft replaced the Presidential horses and carriages with cars, and transformed the White House stable into a garage.  It is natural therefore, that many of our Presidents have been horsemen.  Some were indifferent or reluctant equestrians, but quite a few were true aficionados, obsessed with their horses, riding, racing, and driving them in every spare moment.  While there have been too many Presidents to cover in a short blog post, I’d like to highlight a few.

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Washington at Verplanck’s Point on the North River on September 14, 1782, reviewing the French troops under General Rochambeau on their return from Virginia after the victory at Yorktown.  By John Trumbull – Winterthur Museum, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=57115499

George Washington was a highly accomplished horseman, and a founding member of the Alexandria Jockey Club.  As a general he relied on his mounts and his skill as a rider to lead his men.  His favorite horse during the American Revolution was called Nelson.  Washington was an avid fox hunter and before the war Nelson was his primary mount in this activity.  Nelson survived the war and eventually retired to Mount Vernon with the former President (Horses of the Presidents by Leah C. Taylor (2006), the gift of Leah Taylor).

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President Theodore Roosevelt on Bleistein, 1902. (Presidential Horses, White House History No. 19, Fall 2006)

Another Presidential fox hunter was Teddy Roosevelt.  The Library holds an original, handwritten manuscript of “Riding to Hounds on Long Island,” an essay written by Theodore Roosevelt in July 1886 for the Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine. The sport was under attack for being “too English” for Americans to participate in, but Roosevelt advocates for fox hunting as excellent exercise and military training.  He also points out that George Washington, an iconic American, was a fox hunter.  If it was good enough for Washington, why wouldn’t it be good enough for average Americans?

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Major General Andrew Jackson, engraved by James B. Longacre after painting by Thomas Sulley c. 1820. (Presidential Horses, White House History No. 19, Fall 2006)

Andrew Jackson’s favorite horses were race horses.  While his passion for racing horses is not unique among Presidents, he is the only President to have run a racing stable out of the White House grounds.  His thoroughbreds raced at courses in Washington and Baltimore.  To avoid the possible scandal of the President participating in a sport that much of the public viewed negatively, his horses were raced under the name of his nephew and private secretary, Andrew Jackson Donelson.  One of his most successful horses, Bolivia, was painted by Edward Troye (Presidential Horses, White House History No. 19, Fall 2006).

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Bolivia by Edward Troye (1836).  Retrieved from Clark Art Institute, http://www.clarkart.edu/Art-Pieces/10996

As yet another military President, Ulysses S. Grant was also an accomplished rider.  It turns out, he was also a bit of a speed demon.  He was actually arrested for exceeding the speed limit while driving his team through the streets of Washington.  He paid a $20 fine on the spot and commended the police officer, but it doesn’t seem that he changed his ways.  There are several more stories of him racing in the streets, including one about a race with a butcher’s delivery wagon.  The butcher’s horse won and Grant eventually purchased the horse for his own stable (Presidents on Wheels by Herbert Ridgeway Collins, 1971).

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Ulysses S. Grant in a carriage pulled by Dexter
Dexter, famed for his ideal trotting action called the “Dexter stroke,” won 46 of 50 races and trotted the mile in a record 2:17.1/4 during the 1860s. Robert Bonner bought and retired the horse, but allowed presidential candidate Ulysses S. Grant the thrill of taking the reins at top speed in this popular 1868 lithograph by Currier & Ives. (White House Horses [exhibition postcard], The White House Historical Association.)
 Even after the great age of the horse had been replaced by the automobile, and horses had been relegated to ceremonial and leisure roles, the occupants of the White House and their families continued to ride.  To learn more about Presidents, both historical and modern, and their relationships with horses I encourage you come visit the Main Reading Room and look through our books on the topic.


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Erica Libhart has served as the Mars Technical Services Librarian at the National Sporting Library & Museum (NSLM) since early 2016. The focus of her position is collection services, working to increase accessibility to NSLM’s collection of books, periodicals, and archival materials. The NSLM collections span over 350 years of the history of equestrian sport, as well as fly fishing, wing shooting, and other field sports. Have a question? Contact Erica by e-mail

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Today I get to share an item of which we’re very proud at NSLM. This is the original manuscript of “Riding to Hounds on Long Island,” an essay written by Theodore Roosevelt in July 1886 for the Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine. I’m always certain to bring this out for viewing when we have visitors on tour at the Library.

The essay is beautifully bound and is part of the John H. Daniels Manuscripts Collection.
The essay is beautifully bound and is part of the John H. Daniels Manuscripts Collection.
Red leather and gilt decorations grace this custom binding.
Red leather and gilt decorations adorn the custom binding.
The first page. The essay is written on plain note paper.
The first page. The essay is written on plain note paper.
A photograph of Teddy opposite page one. In 1886, Roosevelt was 28 years old.
A photograph of Teddy opposite page one. In 1886, Roosevelt was 28 years old.
The pages are folded into thirds, presumably stored in a pocket or in an envelope.
The pages are folded into thirds, presumably stored in a pocket or in an envelope.
Guests often comment on the edits in the draft body. Even future presidents aren't above revising their work! In the digital era, edits are mainly invisible.
Guests often comment on the edits in the draft body. Even future presidents aren’t above revising their work! In the digital era, edits are mainly invisible.
Roosevelt's signature on the final page of the manuscript.
Roosevelt’s signature on the final page of the manuscript.
The essay was published as the first item in The Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine, July 1886.
The essay was published as the first item in The Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine, July 1886.
Roosevelt's main theme is a defense of foxhunting as a sport compatible with American culture. He refutes the notion that the practice is too British.
Roosevelt’s main theme is a defense of foxhunting as a sport compatible with American culture. He refutes the notion that the practice is too British.
"It goes without saying that the man who takes to hunting, not because it is a manly sport, but because it is done abroad, is a foolish snob; but, after all, he stands about on the same intellectual level with the man who refuses to take it up because it happens to be liked on the other side of the water."
“It goes without saying that the man who takes to hunting, not because it is a manly sport, but because it is done abroad, is a foolish snob; but, after all, he stands about on the same intellectual level with the man who refuses to take it up because it happens to be liked on the other side of the water.”