As I’ve been working on cataloging the Library’s periodical holdings, I’ve come to realize that these journals provided an outlet for artists and engravers, both of which were frequently employed to provide illustrations for publication.  One such journal that is absolutely crammed with lovely engravings is the French weekly newspaper, La Chasse Illustree, (The Illustrated Hunt) which ran under slightly varying titles from 1867 to 1914.  The Library holds the first year, 1867-8, and the tenth year 1877 as two bound volumes.

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Original 1867 masthead for La Chasse Illustree.  The gift of John H. and Martha Daniels.

The original masthead includes the subtitle, journal des plaisirs de la ferme et du chateau, or pleasures of the farm and castle, and lists topics covered such as fishing, natural history, and travel.

By the tenth year the masthead has been updated somewhat.  The subtitle has changed to, journal des chasseurs et la vie a la campagne, or journal of hunters and country life.  The words describing content on the earlier masthead have been replaced by illustrations and we can see a variety of hunters, fishermen, and shooters, shown in scenes surrounding the title.

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The masthead in 1877.  The gift of John H. and Martha Daniels.

As the title suggests this journal covers a wide range of sporting life.  Despite my inability to read the french text, a survey of the engravings clearly displays the variety of topics covered.

Here we find the expected hunters, such as this highland stalker.

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Highland hunter. Samedi 24 Mars 1877.  The gift of John H. and Martha Daniels.

As well as images of the hunter’s companions, like this bird dog.

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Bird dog. Samedi 23 Fevrier 1878.  The gift of John H. and Martha Daniels.

Hunters of every sort appear in the pages.  Not only men but also animal predators, including some rather exotic beasts like these leopards chasing after Tragopan Satyrs (a Himalayan pheasant)…

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Leopards.  Samedi 12 Mai 1877.  The gift of John H. and Martha Daniels.

an octopus…

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Octopus. Samedi 1 Decembre 1877. T. Wood, Butterworth and Heath.  The gift of John H. and Martha Daniels.

and even a spider!

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Spider. Samedi 26, Octobre 1878. T. Specht.  The gift of John H. and Martha Daniels.

The techniques used by hunters are also shown.  Here are two hunters using a blind to hide from their quarry.

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Hunters using a blind. Samedi 24 Aout 1867.  Yan Dargent, Huyot.  The gift of John H. and Martha Daniels.

This chap is using a complicated looking trap to try and capture some birds.  His set up even includes a tethered live decoy which can be seen at the far left of the image.

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Bird traps. Samedi 8 Fevrier 1868. E Ade’ Stuttgart, E. Foeest.  The gift of John H. and Martha Daniels.

And this interesting cross sectional image shows another trap, this one for fish.

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Fishing with net. Samedi 28 Septembre 1867. F. Lehmert, Huyot.  The gift of John H. and Martha Daniels.

If you can make the trip to visit the Library I’d love to bring out these two volumes for you to spend an afternoon browsing through.  The illustrations I’ve included hardly scratch the surface of this fantastic collection of weekly journals.


SONY DSCErica Libhart has served as the Mars Technical Services Librarian at the National Sporting Library & Museum (NSLM) since early 2016. The focus of her position is collection services, working to increase accessibility to NSLM’s collection of books, periodicals, and archival materials. The NSLM collections span over 350 years of the history of equestrian sport, as well as fly fishing, wing shooting, and other field sports. Have a question? Contact Erica by e-mail

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“The sky is the daily bread of the eyes” -Ralph Waldo Emerson

Art is often best viewed with one’s head in the clouds. Temperature, season, and weather are all defined in the skyline of landscape and sporting scenes. Artists may use dramatic cumulonimbus clouds to mirror the excitement of a race, or low-hanging swathes of mist to promise a dewy morning, giving way to the afternoon sun. In NSLM’s collections, a wide range of cloud types can be seen that meld scientific study with artistic appreciation.

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 Booth Malone (American, b. 1950), Burrland Road, Orange County Hounds, oil on linen, 35½ x 29½ inches. Gift of Viviane M. Warren, 2018
Stratus clouds

In Malone’s Burrland Road, Orange County Hounds, we see an excellent example of stratus clouds, presumably at sunrise. They hang at middle height in the sky, usually measuring between 6,000 and 18,000 feet. While stratus clouds can bring a little fog or drizzle, for the most part they signify clear, dry weather. Here, the purple and blue clouds are set in contrast to the yellow, ochre, and red tones of the field, including hounds and rider. The color contrast and deep shadows of the figures suggest a cool, crisp morning. The viewer senses not only a low temperature, but also a breeze lifting the horse’s tail and hounds’ ears as they run forward. The direction of the breeze is perhaps echoed in the strokes of the stratus cloud, which in turn follows the direction of the field, urging the viewer’s gaze from left to right.

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 John Frederick Herring, Sr. (English, 1795-1865), The Start of the Derby, 1845, oil on canvas, 28 x 48 inches. Bequest of Elizabeth D. Clark, 2017
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Cumulonimbus cloud

Here we see an example of tense energy, both in the skyline and in the foreground. As jockeys and their mounts line up before a flat race in The Start of the Derby, 1845, the sky is dominated by a billowing column of cumulonimbus cloud. These large, often dark, clouds can soar over 20,000 feet in height and signify incoming rain or storms. In this case it looks as though the front is headed right towards the race meet! The horses kick and stamp in excitement, just as plumes of cloud reach into the sky. It is clear that, both above and below, drama is in store.

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Arthur Fitzwilliam Tait (American, 1819 – 1905), Jealousy, oil on canvas, 21 1/4 x 30 inches. Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Timothy J. Greenan, 2012
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Cumulus clouds

When children learn to draw clouds, most often they start with perky, white, cumulus clouds. Cumulus clouds hang relatively low in the sky, often only 3,000-5,000 feet above the ground. While cumulus clouds can bring showers or develop into ominous cumulonimbus clouds, they are usually associated with calm and sunny days. In Tait’s Jealousy, a small herd of cows is seen relaxing in a sunny field edged by fences and wildflowers. Beyond that, a distant tree line softly blends the sky and earth together. Closer to the viewer, the rounded shapes of reclining cows are similar to the shapes of the clouds, evoking a peaceful and pastoral sense throughout the piece.

In art, as in life, the comings and goings of the clouds are worth note. Artists use skylines to tell the viewer about the meteorological conditions of their chosen setting, but they also use the science of clouds to emphasize the mood in every piece. Scientific principles can be found throughout NSLM’s collections. Learn more about them in NSLMology: Science in Sporting Art opening in Middleburg this April.

In July 1836, a stage coach at Walham Green suffered an accident: runaway horses overturned the coach and several passengers suffered broken limbs. One of the passengers was forcibly thrown from the coach, but escaped with only a strained back. That passenger was named James Pollard, a painter of coaches and carriages who was also a great traveler across the English countryside in pursuit of his occupation.

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“Omnibuses Leaving the Nag’s Head, Holloway,” Cat. No. 140, from James Pollard 1792-1867 by N. C. Selway, 1965. National Sporting Library & Museum.

James Pollard (1792-1867) was the son of engraver Robert Pollard (1755-1838). The elder Pollard strove to encourage his son in an artist’s career, and young James worked alongside his father producing drawings and designs for engravings while honing his skills as a painter.

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“‘Fly Fishing,’ from a painting by James Pollard, engraved on wood by F. Babbage,” from Animal Painters of England From the Year 1650, Volume II by Sir Walter Gilbey. National Sporting Library & Museum.

In 1820, James was commissioned by Edward Orme to produce a painting of a mail coach for a signboard of an inn. The painting caught the eye of the Austrian ambassador, who requested another by the same artist. Three more orders came in, and James was on the road to an established career painting coaches, horses, and passengers. He would go on to exhibit at the Royal Academy in 1821 and again in 1824.

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“The Bath & Bristol Mail Coach By Moonlight,” Cat. No. 19, from James Pollard 1792-1867 by N. C. Selway, 1965. National Sporting Library & Museum.

Pollard was a sportsman, and although he enjoyed most success as a painter of coaches, he also painted other sporting scenes. He was an avid fisherman and painted angling scenes multiple times. He also painted scenes from the Epsom races and occasionally foxhunting scenes.

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(after) James Pollard (English, 1792-1867) Aylesbury Grand Steeplechase, The Light Weight Stakes: Starting Field, Plate 1, 1836 aquatint on paper, 15 ¼ x 20 ½ inches National Sporting Library & Museum, gift of Mr. and Mrs. Norman R. Bobins, 2012

In 1825, James married and went into business for himself as an independent artist. He enjoyed great success in the 1830s, but in 1840 his wife and youngest daughter both died. It was reported that James never truly recovered his old form. His career suffered, though he continued to produce paintings into the late 1850s. In his later years, he retired to live with his son and family, and he died in 1867 at 75 years old.


Wedding Photography by Spiering Photography

John Connolly has served as the George L. Ohrstrom, Jr. Head Librarian at the National Sporting Library & Museum (NSLM) since early 2014. He is responsible for the care of the Library collections, including books, magazines, photographs, diaries, letters, and much more. The NSLM collections span over 350 years of the history of equestrian sport, as well as fly fishing, wing shooting, and other field sports. Have a question? Contact John by e-mail 

Most of us have probably seen a wooden duck decoy in an antiques store, at an auction, or in a friend’s home, but the decoy was a utilitarian tool long before it became a collectible sculpture.  Hunters of waterfowl have used decoys from earliest times to lure their quarry into striking range.  Rather than attempting to stalk skittish birds which would fly off at the slightest sound, hunters could lay a trap that would get the birds to come to them.  By putting out a spread of decoys the hunters might trick the target birds into thinking the area safe and welcoming.  As the birds fly in for a landing, the hunters are able to bag a few and put some food on the table.  The use of decoys made waterfowl hunting a reliable source of food.

Decoys have been made out of handy materials such as reeds, carved from a variety of woods, made of cork or injection molded plastic, and even been tethered live birds.

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Duck decoys ca. 400 BC–AD 100
Lovelock Cave, Humboldt County, Nevada
Tule rush, feathers, cordage, paint, 31 x 12 cm
Collected by Mark R. Harrington
13/4512, 13/4513.
Image from The National Museum of the American Indian.

Excavations in 1924 at Lovelock Cave, Nevada revealed a cache of duck decoys made by Native Americans approximately 2000 years ago.  The bodies are made of tule and some of them have duck feathers attached to make them seem more life-like.  Today they can be seen at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of the American Indian in Washington D.C.

In the United States, following the Civil War, subsistence hunting of waterfowl was rapidly replaced by market hunting.  The booming cities of the country required staggering amounts of food, and fowl of all sorts was on the menu.   To meet this need hunters began to harvest waterfowl in huge numbers.  To do this, they needed equally large numbers of decoys.  With a wide spread of decoys, several flocks of waterfowl could be lured into a small area.  Hunters would then use extremely large shotguns called punt guns, to harvest as many as 100 birds with a single shot.

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Waterfowl hunter with mounted punt gun.  By Sydney Harold Smith (or collaborators on his behalf) – This file has been provided by York Museums Trust as part of a GLAMwiki partnership., Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=31565244

At the same time the popularity of sport hunting was on the rise.  The wealthy members of shooting clubs created an additional demand for decoys.  Some market hunters began to supplement their income by carving and selling decoys to sport hunters.  Regional carvers emerged specializing in the local varieties of waterfowl.  This trend towards the commercialization of decoy carving was intensified when over-hunting led to the regulation of wildfowl shooting.

In 1913, the Federal Migratory Bird Law, and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act in 1918, effectively ended market gunning in the United States and transformed waterfowl hunting into a highly regulated sport.  Many of the men that had made a living through market hunting now turned to decoy carving.  As specific carvers became highly sought after, wait lists for custom, hand-carved decoys became common.   Seeing an opportunity, entrepreneurs such as George Petersen, Jasper N. Dodge, and William J. Mason opened factories to produce decoys on an industrial scale.

 

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Early factory Mallard drake.  George Petersen Factory.  Image from RJB Antiques.

Fast forward to the present day and what began as hunting equipment has become valuable American folk art.  Decoys carved by individuals, as well as those made in factories, are in high demand.  In 2007 two decoys by A. Elmer Crowell, a carver from East Harwich, Massachusetts, were sold in a private sale for $1.1 million each!  His preening Pintale drake duck, and sleeping Canada Goose, are both quite beautiful and have each set records in past sales.  I expect they will again the next time they are for sale.

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Preening Pintail drake, circa 1915.  Image from Antiques and the Arts Weekly.
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The sleeping Canada Goose decoy, circa 1917.  Image from Antiques and the Arts Weekly.

The Library holds numerous books on the history of the use and manufacture of decoys, as well as books dealing with the collection of them.  If you have a decoy sitting on the mantle piece perhaps you can come to the Library to research it’s origins.


Erica Libhart has served as the Mars Technical Services Librarian at the National Sporting Library & Museum (NSLM) since early 2016. The focus of her position is collection services, working to increase accessibility to NSLM’s collection of books, periodicals, and archival materials. The NSLM collections span over 350 years of the history of equestrian sport, as well as fly fishing, wing shooting, and other field sports. Have a question? Contact Erica by e-mail

Now is the time when people set their resolutions for the new year. The Library’s main resolutions for 2019 are:

(1) Complete setup of the Library’s new Digital Repository
(2)  Catalog the periodicals collection

Speaking of the periodicals project, we were going through some old copies of Thoroughbred Record to catalog them, and picked up the New Year’s issue for 1936 (January 4).

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Thoroughbred Record, January 4, 1936

We came across an article on New Year’s Resolutions by “Salvator,” the pen-name of John Hervey. The article fell under the paper’s “Marginalia” heading.

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Salvator has quite a few ideas for resolutions, all of them best practices for people associated with horse racing in some fashion. For example, he has insightful (and cynical) resolutions for bettors:

Remember that the average of winning favorites is about 38 per cent.
That playing hunches is playing dunces.
That inside info is outside bunco.
That book-makers are your natural enemies.
That the totalisator, only, cannot be bought.
That all players die broke, anyhow.

Or his resolutions for jockeys:

Less rough riding.
More judgment.
More respect for the judges.
Less anxiety to beat the starter.
More skill at the finish.
Drastic treatment for swelled-head.

He even suggests resolutions for the racing commissions, track managers, and breeders. For trainers:

More interest in good horsemanship.
More interest in good horses.
Less interest in bad horses.
A stern stand against “dope.”
More consideration for horses as horses.
Less consideration for them as gambling tools.
And iron hand on subordinates.

How many of Salvator’s resolutions still hold up today? For us, we’re confident our projects will move forward to completion in the coming year, and hope all the best for the resolutions of our NSLM members and blog readers. Happy New Year!


Wedding Photography by Spiering Photography

John Connolly has served as the George L. Ohrstrom, Jr. Head Librarian at the National Sporting Library & Museum (NSLM) since early 2014. He is responsible for the care of the Library collections, including books, magazines, photographs, diaries, letters, and much more. The NSLM collections span over 350 years of the history of equestrian sport, as well as fly fishing, wing shooting, and other field sports. Have a question? Contact John by e-mail 

The year before last, one of our books up for repair from our Book Adoption Program was written by John Henry Walsh (1810-1888), who wrote under the pseudonym “Stonehenge.” The book, called British Rural Sports, was adopted for restoration by John and Kelly Johnson.

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John Henry Walsh, “Stonehenge,” from British Rural Sports, 1877, National Sporting Library & Museum.

British Rural Sports is an all-in-one volume on 19th Century country sport, showing off Walsh’s command of sporting topics with almost 1,000 pages of content on foxhunting, steeplechase, fly fishing, all variety of shooting and hunting, dog breeds, canine and equine anatomy, and more.

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Toy Terrier and Italian Greyhound, from British Rural Sports, 1877, National Sporting Library & Museum.

Walsh got his start as a surgeon but gravitated to sporting life. He had an interest in every imaginable field sport: angling, riding to hounds, wing shooting, yachting, and more. He was particularly attached to the breeding of dogs and to the development of sporting firearms. He quickly established himself as an expert sporting author, publishing a book on greyhound breeding in 1853 and becoming a regular contributor of articles to periodicals that covered field sports.

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Hunting, from British Rural Sports, 1877, National Sporting Library & Museum.

In 1857, Walsh became editor of The Field, a prominent sporting magazine. He continued his career as a noteworthy sporting author, penning volumes on stabling horses, caring for the health of dogs, and on sporting shotguns and rifles.

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Truffle Dog, from British Rural Sports, 1877, National Sporting Library & Museum.

Walsh instigated a series of field trials for sporting firearms, testing the abilities of various gun designs and varieties of gunpowder. Walsh was also associated with the Kennel Club, working to organize and promote early dog shows. He rode to hounds, trained pointers and setters, and is also reported to have trained hawks. He died in 1888 at 77 years old.


Wedding Photography by Spiering Photography

John Connolly has served as the George L. Ohrstrom, Jr. Head Librarian at the National Sporting Library & Museum (NSLM) since early 2014. He is responsible for the care of the Library collections, including books, magazines, photographs, diaries, letters, and much more. The NSLM collections span over 350 years of the history of equestrian sport, as well as fly fishing, wing shooting, and other field sports. Have a question? Contact John by e-mail 

Occasionally the drama of horse racing spills over from the racetrack.  In 1977 it splashed onto a mare called Fanfreluche, who was stolen from Claiborne Farm near Paris, Kentucky, and was missing without a trace for several months.  This tale of intrigue was covered by many news outlets but for all things Thoroughbred, The Blood-Horse Weekly magazine is the ideal resource.  Fortunately the Library holds nearly a complete run of this essential Thoroughbred horse periodical and I was able to get all the details of this odd incident.

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Fanfreluche racing.  Blood-Horse Weekly, July 4, 1977 (2844-5).  NSLM periodicals collection.

Born in 1967, and owned by Jean-Louis Levesque, Fanfreluche had an excellent record on the track, earning $238,688 and being named 1970 Canadian Horse of the Year.  An injury during her fourth year ended her racing career and she embarked on a new career as a broodmare in which she would prove equally successful.  In 1977 she journeyed south to Claiborne Farm in Kentucky to be bred to Secretariat and was soon confirmed as in foal to the famous Triple Crown winner.

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Fanfreluche.  Blood-Horse Weekly, July 11, 1977 (2924).  NSLM periodicals collection.

On June 26th Fanfreluche vanished from a grazing field she shared with several other broodmares.  She was last seen late in the afternoon by farm staff.  Later in the evening when the head count came up one short it was assumed that the missing mare was simply out of view.  The next morning the stunning truth was revealed, Fanfreluche was missing.

The State police and the FBI were called in.  Investigation of the area turned up two cut fences…

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A cut fence. Blood-Horse Weekly, July 4, 1977 (2844-5). NSLM periodicals collection.

and a trail that led along a stone wall to a wooded area near the road, where the hoof prints stopped.  Presumably the thief had a van waiting, loaded Fanfreluche into it, and made his get away.

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The escape route. Blood-Horse Weekly, July 4, 1977 (2844-5). NSLM periodicals collection.

The authorities, indeed everyone, expected a ransom call.  Although she was valuable, due to strict registration rules Fanfreluche wouldn’t be worth much to the thief.  In much the same way that a stolen artwork is difficult if not impossible to sell, a famous horse with registration lip tattoo would be impossible to pass off as another horse.  Inexplicably no phone call came.

After a week or two the State Police released these photos to the public hoping that someone had seen the missing mare.

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Blood-Horse Weekly, July 11, 1977 (2924).  NSLM periodicals collection.

In an attempt to drum up leads, a false story was circulated that Fanfreluche required medication.  Also a $25,000 reward was offered for information leading to a conviction.  In July an arrest warrant was issued for William Michael McCandless.  He voluntarily turned himself in and denied any connection with the crime.  He was arraigned on July 29th, but there was still no sign of the missing horse.

It wasn’t until December 8th that a tip led investigators to the rural town of Tompkinsville, Kentucky.  At the home of Larry McPherson a mare matching the description of Fanfreluche is discovered and her identity is confirmed from her lip tattoo.  McPherson had been in possession of the horse since shortly after her kidnapping.  One morning his neighbor had spotted a stray horse and assumed that it belonged to McPherson.  They called to alert him and he went out expecting to find one of his horses.

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The road where Fanfreluche was found (top) and the McPherson home (bottom).  Blood-Horse Weekly, Dec 19, 1977 (6199-6202).  NSLM periodicals collection.

Instead it was an unknown horse.  He retrieved the horse and told the neighbor it wasn’t his and to pass the word around that there was a stray horse at his place.  He expected the owner to turn up shortly to claim their animal.  When no one did he reported it to the local police.  No one made the connection to the race horse that had been stolen about 150 miles away.  Eventually McPherson named the stray Brandy and occasionally used her for pleasure riding.   He reported that she was very gentle but was difficult to catch, and that she never seemed to like the name he had given her and had never responded when he used it.

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The McPhersons and “Brandy.”  Blood-Horse Weekly, Dec 19, 1977 (6199-6202).  NSLM periodicals collection.

The McPhersons were cleared of any connection to the theft.  Although Fanfreluche was in need of a brushing and having her hooves trimmed, she was none the worse for wear from her time as an ordinary horse.  She returned to the luxury of Claiborne Farm and in February gave birth to a healthy colt named Sain Et Sauf, or Safe and Sound.

Fanfreluche had a long and productive life before passing away in 1999 at the age of 32.  She is a member of the Canadian Horse Racing Hall of Fame and also won the Sovereign Award for outstanding broodmare.  She had 18 foals.  14 of them were winners, five were stakes winners, and three were champions.

William Michael McCandless was convicted of the theft and sentenced to four years in prison.  It wasn’t his first run in the with law and it wouldn’t be his last.

The Library has a large collection of periodicals dating from the late 1700’s to the present day.  Only our active subscriptions are available without an appointment in the Main Reading Room.  The bulk of the collection is in the Lower Level Reading Room which requires an appointment to visit.  I am currently working on cataloging the periodicals collection so in the near future it will be easy to see what we have available by using our online catalog.


Erica Libhart has served as the Mars Technical Services Librarian at the National Sporting Library & Museum (NSLM) since early 2016. The focus of her position is collection services, working to increase accessibility to NSLM’s collection of books, periodicals, and archival materials. The NSLM collections span over 350 years of the history of equestrian sport, as well as fly fishing, wing shooting, and other field sports. Have a question? Contact Erica by e-mail.