Many studies and papers have been written about how arts education helps students become more successful. In fact, The President’s Committee on the Arts and the Humanities suggests that child arts education can result in better academic performance and social engagement over a long term period, perhaps with life-long benefits. As the Clarice & Robert H. Smith Educator, one of my main duties this fall is to make sure that all public, private, home school and post-secondary students have an opportunity to experience art, especially in our feature exhibition, The Horse in Ancient Greek Art.

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Attributed to the Sappho Painter [Cahn], Greek (Attic), Black-Figure White Ground Lekythos, ca. 510 BCE, Quadriga chariot horses being harnessed, terracotta, Private Collection.
It can be difficult for students to relate an ancient vase to their every day lives. Some of these objects spent hundreds of years underground, and the people who made them aren’t on SnapChat. But I have discovered some human connections between modern Americans and ancient Greeks that the students have really enjoyed.

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Attributed to the Workshop of Hermogenes [Heesen], Greek (Attic) Band Cup, ca. 540 BCE, Achilles, Troilus on horseback, and Polyxena, terracotta, Private Collection.
1. They drank out of bowls. The variety of vase shapes used in ancient times can be overwhelming at first. How could each be used differently? And why didn’t Ancient Greeks drink out of cups like normal people? They actually drank out of shallow bowls called kylikes. Drinking out of a kylix sounds strange at first, but just about every kid eats breakfast cereal and then slurps the leftover milk straight from the bowl.

2. They spruced up on the go. Ancient Greeks did not have silky bubble baths and showers like we think of today, instead they used oil to clean off a sweaty body after exercising at the gymnasium. Not many middle school students roam the halls with an arybollos of perfume or oil tied to their belt, but they understand needing deodorant or body spray after gym class. At least, we hope they do.

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Greek (Corinth), Stater, ca. 340 BCE, Obv: Pegasos, silver, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Adolph D. and Wilkins C. Fund (63.13.3)

3. They are inspired by impossible, magical things. Some of the most engaging pieces of art in the exhibition are those that show mythological creatures. There’s something inherently heroic about a gleaming silver pegasos, something curious and powerful about a centaur crouched, ready to leap across the lip of a bowl. Amid historic recounts of Greco-Prussian wars or horse races, the mythological figures hold a child’s gaze the longest. Children understand the draw of fantastic dishware. ‘I have Power Rangers spoons’ says one student, ‘I have a Minions cup’, ‘I have a whole Frozen tea-party set’, they can relate to these characters.

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Students practice making connections across history.

What is so special about their character dishes at home? On the last tour, one little girl recounted a story about how her favorite fictional character came to be. She paused, struggling to convey what it is about the supernatural, mythical, magical world that pulls her in so.

“I just love it”, she sighed. She was telling me about her favorite cup at home, but her eyes are still glued to the pegasos. 


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Anne Marie Barnes is the Clarice & Robert H. Smith Educator at the National Sporting Library & Museum (NSLM). Her passion for museum work began shortly after graduation with a Bachelor’s degree in History from James Madison University. Between her expeience working at the Fredericksburg Area Museum & Cultural Center and the Washington Heritage Museums, she has done everything from designing summer camps to formulating major fundraisers. Have a question? Contact Anne Marie by e-mail

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The Horse and the Camera from the Judith and Jo Tartt, Jr. Photography Collection
exhibition on view at the National Sporting Library & Museum through January 7, 2018

Whether you love or hate taking selfies, it is hard to imagine a time before photography and the easy access we now have to the news, sports, and images of them. From the first static images, human imagination has turned the camera towards everything from the epic to the mundane. A breakneck evolution of photography has continued to advance since the first grainy, permanent photographic image was produced circa 1827. Developments saw stiff portraits become sharp-as-a-tack studies of motion within 50 years, and the twentieth century brought the wide-spread distribution of them. The history of the development of equestrian sport photography may be traced with photographs in The Horse and the Camera from the Judith and Jo Tartt, Jr. Photography Collection exhibition on view at the National Sporting Library & Museum through January 7, 2018.

Beginning with the patenting of the tintype, by American innovator Hamilton Smith in 1856, photographic portraiture was quickly popularized across the United States. The medium allowed for the production of an image within minutes and gave rise to itinerant photographers who traveled from town-to-town, capturing affordable portraits of people and their prized possessions such as the horse.

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Gentleman and Lady in Carriage, c. 1880, tintype, 6 1/2 x 8 1/2 inches, on loan from the Judith & Jo Tartt, Jr. Photography Collection

It was difficult to produce sharp images with early methods of photography, since they required the sitter to be motionless for extended periods of time. The very nature of the medium dictated that the results were stiff and posed compositions.

How then did we come to really understand what a horse looks like when it is jumping, trotting, or galloping? The immediate answer that might come to mind is the name, Eadweard Muybridge. His 1877-8 series of photographic studies revolutionized the way the world views the horse, other animals, and humans in motion.

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Eadweard Muybridge (English, 1830-1904), Horse and Rider, c. 1890, collotype, 19 x 24 1/8 inches, on loan from the Judith & Jo Tartt, Jr. Photography Collection

As the story goes, famed photographer Muybridge was hired by the entrepreneur and horse breeder Leland Stanford, auspiciously to settle a bet about whether or not all four hooves of a galloping horse were simultaneously off the ground at any time during the sequence of the gait. The question was a photographic paradox. In the 1870’s, the medium remained an inherently slow and precise process. How could one reliably capture motion with it?

In response, Muybridge devised an industrious and pioneering setup of twelve large-format glass plate cameras spaced apart (The example above is a later twenty-camera version). He outfitted the cameras with innovative and reliable shutters of his own design, tripwires, and plates coated with an extremely light-sensitive emulsion. The combination made a 1/500th second exposure possible.

The technological breakthrough led to a cascade of other camera and film innovations within the following decades, for both consumer-grade and professional equipment and film.

The first photo-finishes forever changed the way races were decided…

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Harness Race Finish, Roosevelt Raceway, 1945, gelatin silver print, 10 x 8 inches, photo Milton Platnick, Hempstead, Long Island, NY, on loan from the Judith & Jo Tartt, Jr. Photography Collection

The implementation of the wirephoto service nationally by the 1920s made it possible to disseminate notable and newsworthy images across the country with ease…

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Miss Barbara Worth Performs a Cossack Jump, 1933, gelatin silver print, 7 x 9 inches, photo wire caption: Spectacular Jumps This Girl’s Forte. Miss Barbara Worth not only is prominent in California society, but is known as the owner and trainer of some of the best jumping horses in the state. She does more than train, however– she rides them. This photo shows Miss Worth with shortened stirrups executing a difficult Cossack jump. 6-26-33, on loan from the Judith & Jo Tartt, Jr. Photography Collection

…and the result in the twentieth century was that sports photography overtook illustration.

Pimlico Steeplechase, “Mergler Takes a Spill Off Capital Torch Song,” 1941, gelatin silver print marked with pen, crop marks, and gouache, 9 x 12 5/8 inches, on loan from the Judith & Jo Tartt, Jr. Photography Collection

The history of the development of equestrian sport photography is just one of the many threads that runs through The Horse and the Camera from the Judith and Jo Tartt, Jr. Photography Collection exhibition. The intimate survey is comprised of almost 70 tintypes, photogravures, albumen prints, gelatin silver prints, and collotypes created from the 1870s to the 1960s. Works are on loan from the Judith and Jo Tartt, Jr. Photography Collection of over 150 vintage and antique photographic images. The exhibition is made possible through the generous support of Mr. & Mrs. Charles T. Akre.

To learn more about the exhibition, join us for an Evening with The Horse & the Camera on Friday, September 29, 2017 at 6:30 pm for a reception and exhibition talk. Photography expert Jo Tartt, Jr. and the NSLM’s George L. Ohrstrom, Jr. Curator of Art Claudia Pfeiffer will explore how advancements in cameras, black & white film, and stop-motion photography captured human imagination and the horse at rest and in motion. RSVP to ABarnes@NationalSporting.org or 540.687.6542 ext. 25


pfeifferClaudia Pfeiffer has been the George L. Ohrstrom, Jr. Curator of Art at the National Sporting Library & Museum since the position was underwritten by the George L. Ohrstrom, Jr. Foundation in 2012. Her primary focus is the research, design, interpretation, writing, and installation of exhibitions. E-mail Claudia at cpfeiffer@nationalsporting.org

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Xenophon Marmorbüste im Kgl. Museum, Berlin, 1905. Accessed via Wikimedia Commons.

Some things just never change. The visitors to our Museum who ride horses are often impressed how timeless is the wisdom in the equestrian literature of years past: advice given 200 years ago is usually as pertinent to handling horses today as it was when it was written. Equestrian literature is extremely traditional, and most are unaware how far back the chain runs. When it comes to the written word, what we know and practice today truly began with the Greek soldier, historian, and philosopher Xenophon.

Xenophon of Athens (c. 430-354 BCE) was born to a wealthy Athenian family and served as a mercenary cavalry officer under Cyrus the Younger during his campaign against the Persians. After a complicated series of military misadventures, Xenophon and his fellow mercenaries were recruited to fight for Sparta, the enemies of Athens.

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Plate 8-I, from Richard Berenger’s translation of Xenophon, The History and Art of Horsemanship (1771). National Sporting Library & Museum.

“The same care which is given to the horse’s food and exercise, to make his body grow strong, should also be devoted to keeping his feet in condition. Even naturally sound hoofs get spoiled in stalls with moist, smooth floors.”

 

For this (and possibly for his admiration of Socrates) Xenophon was exiled from Athens and settled into a life of writing in Scillus. It was here that Xenophon penned his treatise On Horsemanship, widely credited as one of the earliest works on the selection, care, and management of horses.

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Plate 4, from Richard Berenger’s translation of Xenophon, The History and Art of Horsemanship (1771). National Sporting Library & Museum.

The earliest printing of Xenophon appears to have been around 1516. On Horsemanship was widely re-popularized during the Renaissance with the explosion of equestrian literature from the mid-1500s forward.

“If you desire to handle a good war-horse so as to make his action the more magnificent and striking, you must refrain from pulling at his mouth with the bit as well as from spurring and whipping him.” — Xenophon, On Horsemanship Morris Morgan translation, 1893.

By the 1580s, authors were debating fine points of the precepts laid down by Xenophon. On Horsemanship was translated into English by Richard Berenger in 1771.

“[I]t is evident that by word of mouth you can teach a horse nothing. If, however, you reward him with kindness after he has done as you wish, and punish him when he disobeys, he will be most likely to learn to obey as he ought.” — Xenophon, On Horsemanship Morris Morgan translation, 1893.

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Left: Greek (Cretan), Fragment from Pithos or Relief Amphora, ca. 660-630 BCE, terracotta, Tampa Museum of Art, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. William Knight Zewadski in honor of Dr. J. Michael Padgett, Curator of Classical Art, 1990-1992. (1991.023.001). Photo Credit: Courtesy Tampa Museum of Art Right: Plate 5-I from Richard Berenger’s translation of Xenophon, The History and Art of Horsemanship (1771). National Sporting Library & Museum.

“When the horse bolts suddenly off, the rider should lean forward, for then the horse would be less likely to draw in under the rider and jolt him up; but he should bend back when the horse is being brought to a poise, as he would then be less jolted.”

On view in the Museum right now is The Horse in Ancient Greek Art, an exhibition of Greek pottery depicting horses from the time of Xenophon and beyond. Visitors to the Museum can experience the unbroken chain from the ancient world to today by visiting this great exhibition and our permanent collection works on view.


Wedding Photography by Spiering Photography

John Connolly has served as the George L. Ohrstrom, Jr. Head Librarian at the National Sporting Library & Museum (NSLM) since early 2014. He is responsible for the care of the Library collections, including books, magazines, photographs, diaries, letters, and much more. The NSLM collections span over 350 years of the history of equestrian sport, as well as fly fishing, wing shooting, and other field sports. Have a question? Contact John by e-mail

This Saturday, September 9, our newest exhibition opens at the Museum, and visitors will get to come face-to-face with 2,500-year-old horses.

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Attributed to the Workshop of Gorgon Painter, (Greek, Attic), Horse-head Amphora, ca. 580-570 BCE, terracotta, 10 3/8 inches high, Private Collection. Each side of this amphora features a portrait of a horse with halter and flowing mane.

The Horse in Ancient Greek Art is an exciting new show that features painted vases, small sculpture, and silver coins, all from the 8th thru 4th centuries BCE. These objects are beautiful treasures that, amazingly, have survived over two and a half millennia. Every art object has a story to tell and a history to share – but these objects have a particularly long history! In addition to being spectacular archaeological finds, these works of art tell us all about equestrian life of the ancient Greek world.

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Attributed to the Orestes Painter, Greek (Attic), Red-figure Column Krater, ca. 440 BCE, Side A: Jockeys racing around column, terracotta,16 1/4 inches high, 14 3/8 inches wide, Private Collection. Ancient jockeys, who rode nude, raced their horses on long oval tracks with a sharp turn at each end.

In ancient Greece, horses represented nobility, strength, and beauty. Horses appear throughout Greek art and literature, play important roles in mythology and legend (some of the most popular examples include the Trojan Horse and Pegasos – spelled Pegasus in Latin), and were a key part of ancient society and culture. The Greeks loved athletics and competition, and equestrian sports became some of the most prestigious events at the Olympics and other types of games.

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Euainetos of Syracuse, Sicily, Dekadrachum, ca. 405-400 BCE, silver, 1 3/8 inches diameter, Private Collection, Washington, DC. This coin (equaling 10 drachmas) features an impressive relief of a quadriga, or four-horse chariot, with Nike, Goddess of Victory, flying overhead.

The Greek historian, author, and cavalry officer named Xenophon (ca. 430-354 BCE), wrote treatises on horse care and training. The concepts shared in his manuals on horsemanship and riding basically formed the foundation for modern equitation, and his writings have been referenced and translated over many centuries.

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Villanovan or Early Etruscan (Italy), Horse bit, ca. 800-700 BCE, bronze,3 3/4 x 6 x 5 inches, Sidney and Lois Eskenazi Museum of Art, Indiana University (Photo: Kevin Montague). This ancient bit is a simple snaffle (a single jointed, mild type of bit) with decorative cheek pieces in the shape of a mare and foal.

Many of the objects in the show are vases, or vessels, featuring beautifully detailed decoration and paintings. Most were originally meant to be functional – as drinking cups, pitchers, or storage containers for wine or oil. Now they are displayed so the artwork on all sides – top, bottom, inside, and outside – can be seen and enjoyed.

NSLM partnered with the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts (VMFA) in Richmond for this project. After the exhibition closes here in January, it will travel on to the second venue there. We are thrilled to be able to share so many works on loan from important collections for this show, including: the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, the Tampa Museum of Art, Princeton University Art Museum, the Eskenazi Museum of Art at Indiana University, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, and private collections. The Metropolitan Museum of Art,  Fordham University , and the American Numismatic Society are also lending works that will be shown at the VMFA venue.

We are also excited to present the catalog that goes with this exhibition. It features essays by major scholars of ancient art and archaeology and explores the significance of the horse in the ancient Greek world. To learn more about the exhibition, the catalog, or all the great programming we have lined up, visit here.

The Horse in Ancient Greek Art is organized by the National Sporting Library & Museum and the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts. It will be on view at NSLM, September 9, 2017 – January 14, 2018.

 

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In the racing world, horses and jockeys are the heroes of the track. Amid trainers, grooms, and thousands of spectators, no individual is easier to identify than the brightly-clad jockey. They are a symbol of power, skill, and grace, a psychological link between man and horse. African-American jockeys are no exception.

Early American racing history was directly shaped by black hands. Slaves and freed men alike raced and trained Thoroughbreds throughout the country. After the Civil War, former slaves became paid jockeys and stable staff at the farms and plantations where they grew up taking care of the horses. Their knowledge of and connection with race horses were an underpinning of American racing, and many races featuring African-American jockeys, often in equal number to white competitors. In fact, in the first 28 runnings of the Kentucky Derby (1875-1903), 15 of the winners were African-American.

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Edward Muybridge, The Horse in motion. “Sallie Gardner,” owned by Leland Stanford; running at a 1:40 gait over the Palo Alto track, 19th June 1878 , albumen, 1878, Library of Congress. 
Muybridge’s early photographic records of black jockeys and boxers show conflicting messages in 19th century race relations. They perpetuate imagery of African-American strength and obedience, while also representing the social mobility of successful black individuals within those sports.

Men like Isaac Murphy, Oliver Lewis, Shelby “Pike” Barnes, and many others used the stereotype of black athleticism to garner respect and greater social and economic freedom. Some were able to negotiate salaries of up to $400,000 in today’s money, an income almost unheard of for black Americans at the time. They raced with a passion familiar to all sport lovers. After an 1890 win at Sheepshead Bay, Isaac Murphy told a reporter simply, “I ride to win.”

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Louis Maurer (American, 1832-1932) Proctor Knott (The First Futurity, 1888, Jerome Park, Sheepshead Bay, a Close Finish), 1888, oil on canvas, 13 1/4 x 19 inches
Gift of the Margaret Kendrick Blodgett Foundation, at the request of Mrs. Blodgett’s granddaughter, Margaret Hall Whitfield, in honor of Peter Winants, Director Emeritus of the National Sporting Library, 2001
      Favored to win, Proctor Knott with Shelby “Pike” Barnes up takes 1st place at the 1888 First Futurity and a record $40,000 purse. Barnes was the leading U.S. jockey in both 1888 and 1889. He was also the first jockey to win over 200 races in a year and was among several successful African-American jockeys that dominated the sport in the late 19th century. Barnes was inducted into the National Museum of Racing & Hall of Fame in 2011.

 

However, the heyday of black American jockeys came to an end. Jim Crow laws and 1896’s “separate but equal” ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson made it harder and harder for black jockeys to find employment. While African-Americans were welcome trainers, grooms, and stable hands throughout the 20th century, they were often shut out from the more visible and lucrative position of jockey. Although tracks are now desegregated and several black jockeys have been elected into the National Museum of Racing’s Hall of Fame, there are significantly fewer African-American wearing silks today. According to a 2013 Jockey’s Guild study, there are only about 30 African-Americans in a membership of nearly 1,000 individuals.

Andre Pater (Polish, American, b. 1953) Going to the Post, 2011, oil on canvas, 24 x 28 inches, Collection of Nils and Samantha Brous © Andre Pater.
Contemporary sporting artist Andre Pater began incorporating African Americans into his work in acknowledgment of the previously marginalized black jockeys of the 19th century.

 

Andre Pater (Polish, American, b. 1953) Jockey Up, Turquoise and Gold Silks, pastel on board, 34 x 24 inches, 2008. Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Jose Laudo De Camargo © Andre Pater

Racing contributions and successes by black jockeys demonstrate the value of representation- both on the track and on canvas. African-American jockeys in the closing years of the 19th century dominated the sport in many ways. Yes, they won countless races and took home impressive purses. But they also showed – and still show – great tenacity and passion. They are smart, skilled, and talented competitors whose achievements continue to inspire us.

Want to know more about African-American jockeys and Gilded Age imagery? Join us on June 13th for a Heroes & Underdogs talk with Dr. John Ott of James Madison University. Dr. Ott will be presenting “Race Forms: African-American Jockeys in Eadweard Muybridge’s Animal Locomotion and Gilded Age Philadelphia”.

 


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Anne Marie Barnes is the Clarice & Robert H. Smith Educator at the National Sporting Library & Museum (NSLM). Her passion for museum work began shortly after graduation with a Bachelor’s degree in History from James Madison University. Between her expeience working at the Fredericksburg Area Museum & Cultural Center and the Washington Heritage Museums, she has done everything from designing summer camps to formulating major fundraisers. Have a question? Contact Anne Marie by e-mail

 

As the story goes, contemporary sporting artist Andre Pater (pronounced “potter”) made a fateful wrong turn towards Paris, Kentucky, on the way to a meeting and experienced the beauty of the scenic thoroughbred farms in the pastoral region for the first time.  In 1988, he and his wife, Kasia, moved from Dallas, Texas, and have made the Kentucky Bluegrass their home ever since.

Before moving to the U.S., Pater received a formal academic art education, earning a Masters degree in Interior Architecture from the Kraków Academy of Fine Arts in his native Poland. There, he honed his skills in drawing and in easel-painting nudes. The artist, however, was fascinated by Arabian horses from an early age and taught himself to draw and paint animals. Direct observations from nature and study of previous Polish and sporting art masters fueled his creativity and exploration of different techniques.

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The Meet (Hilary J. Boone, Jr. and Hilary J. Boone, III), 1991, oil on canvas, 25 x 30 inches, Private Collection © Andre Pater

In Kentucky, the Paters first lived at Wimbledon Farm, the property of Hilary Boone, II, President of the Iroquois Hunt Club. It is here that Pater first began to artistically explore foxhunting along with the other sporting and animal subjects for which he has gained prominence. He persuaded Boone to sit for a sporting portrait along with his son, Hilary Boone, III, surrounded by the Iroquois pack in 1991. (Ironically, Boone, III, a polo player, first took up hunting seriously after the painting was completed.)

Pater’s growing success led to a rising tide of commissions and the need for a larger studio. He found one on the property of Penny Chenery, owner of the 1973 Triple Crown Winner Secretariat. The expansive space gave the artist the freedom to paint on a grander scale, and among these larger canvases were paintings of hounds.

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Hounds in a Kennel, 1995, oil on canvas, 28 x 32 inches, Private Collection © Andre Pater

Fully immersed in Kentucky country life, the Paters became social members of the Iroquois, and the artist gained unrestricted access to the kennels. Foxhunting and hounds subjects became an inspiration throughout his career.

One cannot help but be captivated by the individual personalities, anatomical accuracy, and physical movement that Pater is able to convey in his portrayals of hounds, figures, and other animals.  His mastery in capturing the characteristics of light and shadow with a painterly effect draws the viewer into the compositions. Pater paints his subjects from the inside out.

Heading Home, 1994, oil on canvas, 30 x 40 inches, Private Collection © Andre Pater

… and to think it all began with a wrong turn. The Paters’ involvement with the Iroquois has continued to the present. Kasia serves on the hunt club’s Board, and Pater has supported the Hound Welfare Fund – a program for Iroquois hounds retired due to age, illness, or injury – by donating limited edition prints and chalk drawings auctioned at the annual fundraiser in June.

Awake, 2011, charcoal on paper, 33 x 37 inches, Private Collection © Andre Pater

On Saturday, May 27, in celebration of Virginia Foxhound Show weekend, Andre Pater will return to the National Sporting Library & Museum to discuss several of his foxhunting and hound paintings and drawings in the exhibition, Andre Pater: In a Sporting Light, on view through August 13. The talk will be followed by a reception and lecture on the Hound Welfare Fund by Lilla Mason, MFH of Iroquois Hunt Club. For more information on the programs and to RSVP, please visit Nationalsporting.org.


pfeifferClaudia Pfeiffer has been the George L. Ohrstrom, Jr. Curator of Art at the National Sporting Library & Museum since the position was underwritten by the George L. Ohrstrom, Jr. Foundation in 2012. Her primary focus is the research, design, interpretation, writing, and installation of exhibitions. E-mail Claudia at cpfeiffer@nationalsporting.org

You may have seen the hashtag #5womenartists on your feed or in the news in the last few weeks. It has been shared broadly, but it was first begun by the National Museum of Women in the Arts (NMWA) in honor of Women’s History Month last year. “Using the hashtag #5womenartists, the campaign will encourage NMWA’s online community to help address the gender imbalance in the presentation of art both in the United States and internationally,” notes the NMWA webpage. Here are five women artists that you can find at the National Sporting Library & Museum.

#1 – Jean Bowman was a leading 20th century, American equestrian portraitist and a founding member of the American Academy of Equine Art.

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Jean Eleanor Bowman (American, 1917-1994), Mongo on the Turf at Laurel Racetrack, Maryland with Charles Burr Up, 1964, oil on canvas, 29 x 36 inches, Gift of Jacqueline B. Mars, 2012 © John H. Pentecost

The painful reality is that unlike institutions such as NMWA which focus on female artists, only 3-5% of museum permanent collection objects in the U.S. and Europe have been produced by women (NMWA’s Get the Facts). Depressing, right?

#2 – Susan Catherine Moore Waters was an early female artist who attained recognition during her lifetime for her animal paintings, exhibiting at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876.

Susan Waters, Chickens & Raspberries
Susan Catherine Moore Waters (American, 1823-1900), Chickens and Raspberries, c.1880, oil on canvas, 24 x 16 ½ inches, Gift of The Phelan Collection, 2012

I was curious to see how the NSLM’s permanent collection would hold up to this statistic. 41 objects by females out of 962 paintings, works on paper, sculpture, prints, and trophies from 17th century to the present were recorded in the 2015 full inventory. This equals 4.3% females.

#3 – Tessa Pullan was commissioned by Paul Mellon to sculpt the three-quarter life-size bronze of his winning Thoroughbred Sea Hero, now installed in the NSLM’s boxwood garden.

Tessa Pullan, Sea Hero
Tessa Pullan, (British, b.1953) Sea Hero, bronze on slate stone base, 96 x 88 x 29 ¼ inches, Bequest of Paul Mellon, 1999, Acquired 2014 © Tessa Pullan

Looking at objects made from the 20th century to the present in isolation, however, reflects a stronger number of 27.5% women. This mirrors the rising number of female artists attaining success throughout the 20th century. Additionally, 31% of the original art that came to the NSLM since the Museum opened in 2011 was created by women artists.

#4 – Clarice Smith’s exhilarating three-dimensional exploration of a horse race brings an edgy and contemporary perspective to the traditional subject.

Clarice Smith, Gallop
Clarice Smith, (American, b.1933), Gallop, 2009, oil with gold and copper leaf on canvas, on 5-panel screen, 50 x 77 ½ inches, Gift of Clarice Smith, 2015 © Clarice Smith

In addition to the artists from the permanent collection highlighted in this post, I must add Marie-Rosalie “Rosa” Bonheur (French, 1822 – 1899) to my #5womenartists. She was an innovator in her time and stands as a beacon to 20th century women artists. Even though NSLM does not yet have a work by Bonheur in its permanent collection, you can currently see one of her paintings at the Museum on loan. She is on our wish list, as the collection continues to grow through generous donations and bequests.

#5 – French painter and sculptor Rosa Bonheur is one of the most revered artists of the 19th century. See her painting in The Chronicle of the Horse in Art exhibition on loan through March 19, 2017.

Marie-Rosalie (Rosa) Bonheur (French, 1822-1899), Highland Ponies, 1861, oil on canvas, 14 ¼ x 20 inches, Collection of Amy Chuckrow (on loan to The Chronicle of the Horse in Art exhibition through March 19, 2017)

We as keepers of history do not wish to revise the past, but we have our eyes open to the promise of the future. Today 51% of visual artists are women (NMWA’s Get the Facts).

What are your favorite #5womenartists? We would love to hear from you.


pfeifferClaudia Pfeiffer has been the George L. Ohrstrom, Jr. Curator of Art at the National Sporting Library & Museum since the position was underwritten by the George L. Ohrstrom, Jr. Foundation in 2012. Her primary focus is the research, design, interpretation, writing, and installation of exhibitions. E-mail Claudia at cpfeiffer@nationalsporting.org