The Library’s Main Reading Room has two reading alcoves, and the one near the front gets most attention from our visitors. As they browse through, it’s not uncommon for some of the items shelved there to receive a chuckle.

badminton-magazine
Badminton Magazine. Many guests to NSLM find this title a little confusing.

What’s Badminton Magazine, you may ask? And does NSLM really have two decades of periodicals on rackets and shuttlecocks? To get at the answer, we have to look back a good long way into history.

Henry_Somerset_5th_Duke_of_Beaufort_by_Francis_Cotes
Portrait of Henry Somerset, 5th Duke of Beaufort (1744-1803). Accessed via Wikimedia Commons. The Fifth Duke of Beaufort founded The Duke of Beaufort’s Hunt.

The history of Badminton Magazine truly starts in 1762, when exhausted after a fruitless day of hunting deer, Henry Somerset, the Fifth Duke of Beaufort decided to try hunting fox for a change. The hunting must have gone much better, for the Duke continued on hunting, establishing the Duke of Beaufort’s Hunt, one of the oldest fox hunts in the world. The Dukes of Beaufort have continued to hunt fox with the pack every since, each Duke typically serving as the Master in his turn. Over the years, the family has become one of the truly great sporting families in British history.

hints-on-riding
“Over an Obstacle By Himself,” by G. D. Giles. Illustration from The Badminton Library: Riding (1891). National Sporting Library & Museum.

Between 1885 and 1902, Longmans, Green & Company produced a series of encyclopedic books covering the whole spectrum of British sports and pastimes. The series was the brainchild of Henry Somerset, the Eight Duke of Beaufort. Wishing to equip neophytes with the basics on sporting topics the Duke served as the initial overseeing editor for a series that would ultimately swell to include 30 volumes on horse racing, hunting, fishing, polo, falconry, golf, cricket, punting, and even dancing. The book series was titled The Badminton Library.

badminton-library
The Badminton Library continued to add volumes after the death of the Eighth Duke of Beaufort in 1899, adding a total of 30 volumes by 1920.

The success of The Badminton Library became evident to the publishers early, and by 1885 the Badminton Magazine of Sport and Pastimes had been established. It ran from 1895 to 1923, and covered the same wide variety of sports in The Badminton Library: shooting, foxhunting, fishing, and falconry are blended with yachting, sprinting, and golf. And that’s why we have Badminton Magazine in the Library.

badminton-magazine-page
A page from a 1902 issue of Badminton Magazine with photographs of foxhunting, sprinting, and yachting in a variety of British localities.

Why the name Badminton? It only seemed natural. The Somerset family has resided at Badminton House since 1612, and it has since served as the principal seat of the Dukes of Beaufort. For unclear reasons, the mansion has also given its name to the sport of badminton. The house’s oral legends claim that the Eight Duke of Beaufort’s children invented the game during a long, dreary winter in 1863. Ostensibly, it was a safe game to play indoors without fear of damaging the equestrian paintings by John Wooton in the hall.

badminton-house
“Badminton House,” from the Preface to The Badminton Library: Riding (1890). National Sporting Library & Museum.

Historians indicate that badminton was likely played earlier in India before being brought back to England by the military in the 1870s. But Badminton House’s name stuck to the sport as it developed and established itself in the 1880s and beyond.


Wedding Photography by Spiering Photography

John Connolly has served as the George L. Ohrstrom, Jr. Head Librarian at the National Sporting Library & Museum (NSLM) since early 2014. He is responsible for the care of the Library collections, including books, magazines, photographs, diaries, letters, and much more. The NSLM collections span over 350 years of the history of equestrian sport, as well as fly fishing, wing shooting, and other field sports. Have a question? Contact John by e-mail

Advertisements

Thousands of spectators thronged the race meet at Knavesmire in York on August 25, 1804. The crowd was much larger than usual and curious onlookers strained for a view of the upcoming race. The reason for all the commotion was simple: a woman was challenging a man in a horse race. It was a staggering event, both derided as a pure novelty by some and lauded as step toward equality by others. For many of the day’s spectators, it meant drama and entertainment, and they turned out in droves to see it.

The race was a family affair. Mrs. Alicia Thornton (1782-18??) of Thornville Royal had challenged her neighbor and brother-in-law, Captain Flint to a race. Her husband, Colonel Thomas Thornton (1757–1823) was the original sporting gentleman of the 18th Century. He was an expert rider, went shooting, hawking and fishing, could leap his own height, and had a voracious appetite for gambling. Col. Thornton had placed a bet of 1,000 guineas on his wife in this contest, and both he and Flint were intent on victory.

IMG_20171208_104304
“Celebrated Race Between Mrs. Thornton and Mr. Flint at the York August Meeting, 1804.” Published October 1804 by J. Wheble, Warwick Square. The Sporting Magazine for September 1804, National Sporting Library & Museum.

Alicia rode on her husband’s horse Old Vingarillo. Flint rode his prized horse Thornville. Mrs. Thornton’s riding prowess was well-known as she regularly rode to hounds with her husband. In fact, it appears that her equestrian skills might have pressured Flint into some less-than-gallant behavior. He insisted on barring Alicia from being accompanied to the start of the race by an attendant. When she arrived at the start, Flint claimed the side of the course that helped him most. Since Alicia rode sidesaddle, she was prevented from using her usual whip hand without fear of interfering with her opponent.

To the racegoers, Alicia was the popular wager: betting began at 5 and 6 to 4 “on the petticoat,” and over the first three miles, betting ran to 7 to 4 then 2 to 1 on a Alicia’s victory. By all accounts, she was by far the superior rider during the race before disaster struck. In the final mile of the race, Old Vingarillo’s saddle-girths loosened and Alicia’s saddle slid sideways on the horse. She pulled up immediately to avoid a dangerous fall. Flint would later receive criticism for ignoring Alicia’s plight and riding hard the whole way to the finish to win by the maximum distance.

Alicia-Thornton
Alicia Thornton by Mackenzie, after unknown artist stipple engraving, published 1805. NPG D8248 © National Portrait Gallery, London

It was the Thornton side’s turn for less-than-gallant behavior. Col. Thornton refused to pay his wager for the loss, claiming that the bet had been nothing more than a friendly joke. Following her loss, Mrs. Thornton wrote a scathing complaint against Flint in the newspaper and issued a challenge to repeat the race again the following year. Flint refused to race again, likely prompted in part by Col. Thornton’s failure to pay.

Alicia would go on to race again in the next two years, becoming the first woman to win a match race in 1805 against Frank Buckle (1766-1832). At that race, Flint confronted Col. Thornton in the grandstands for payment of the prior year’s bet. Upon Col. Thornton’s continued refusal, Flint beat Thornton with a horse whip and had to be restrained by the other racegoers. The incident led to arrests, lawsuits, and a deep bitterness between the Flints and the Thorntons, who before the race had been on very friendly terms.

IMG_20171208_114951
“The Gallant and Spirited Race at Knavesmire, in Yorkshire for 500gs. and 1000gs. bye — 4 miles — between The Late Col. Thornton’s Lady and Mr. Flint.” Pierce Egan’s Book Of Sports, No. IX. National Sporting Library & Museum.

As for Alicia, her relationship with Col. Thornton began to sour in 1806 as Thornton’s fortune dried up. In the end, he was obliged to sell his massive Thornville royal estate. By the end of 1806, she and her husband parted ways and she eventually remarried a naval officer before disappearing from the pages of history. She would be remembered as the first female jockey in England, and was the only woman victor listed by the Jockey Club until 1943.


Wedding Photography by Spiering Photography

John Connolly has served as the George L. Ohrstrom, Jr. Head Librarian at the National Sporting Library & Museum (NSLM) since early 2014. He is responsible for the care of the Library collections, including books, magazines, photographs, diaries, letters, and much more. The NSLM collections span over 350 years of the history of equestrian sport, as well as fly fishing, wing shooting, and other field sports. Have a question? Contact John by e-mail

For some centuries, Christmas time in East Kent was marked with a curious tradition. Sometimes on Christmas Eve or on Boxing Day, houses in certain villages would be visited by the hooden horse.

The hooden horse tradition is strikingly strange to modern sensibilities. The usual arrangement appears to have included a “waggoner,” who would carry a whip and lead the “hoodener,” a man draped in sackcloth and bent over, carrying a wooden horse head on a staff. In the 19th Century, a popular accomplice of these two was “Mollie,” usually a young man dressed in women’s clothes who would sweep the lane in the wake of the hooden horse. Sometimes, a “rider” would accompany this trio. Often, the hooden horse group would be accompanied by musicians playing tunes on a concertina, accordion, cymbals, or tambourine.

Walmer 29th March 1907
A troupe of hoodeners from Walmer Court Farm in Walmer, Kent, 1907. Accessed via Wikipedia.

The troupe would travel from house to house, where the “rider” would attempt to clamber onto the back of the hooden horse, and the “waggoner” would snatch at the hooden horse’s bridle, shouting “whoa!” “Mollie” would caper about the yard, and if the group was invited into the house, “Mollie” would reliably chase any girls and frighten any children within. The comedic antics of the hooden horse will proceed for some time, before the troupe moves off to another house.

Deal 1909
A hoodener in Deal, Kent, 1909. Accessed via Wikipedia.

The history of the hooden horse is shrouded in mystery. Percy Maylam wrote a 1909 book (The Hooden Horse) to memorialize and record what was a vanishing tradition during his time. Of the hooden horses he observed in the 1880s and 1890s, none of the operators could speak to the historicity of the tradition. Written accounts of the practice date back to 1807, and speculation as to its origins has come in many forms. Early 20th Century writers guessed that it might be connected to pre-Christian sacrifices to Odin, but subsequent writings have dismissed that idea. It is likely an independent mid-winter tradition, but nobody knows when it began.

Sare (Thanet) June 1905 WIth improvised broom
A troupe of hoodeners from Hale Farm in St. Nicholas-at-Wade, Kent, 1905. Accessed via Wikipedia. The photo, taken at the request of historian Percy Maylam, includes the “Mollie” character.

The practice of hoodening essentially went extinct following the turmoil of World War I. After World War II, a modernized revival of some hoodening practices was incorporated into cultural festivals in Kent, in order to preserve some of the lost tradition. Although it’s no longer a Christmas tradition, the hooden horse lives on in several communities in Kent.


Wedding Photography by Spiering Photography

John Connolly has served as the George L. Ohrstrom, Jr. Head Librarian at the National Sporting Library & Museum (NSLM) since early 2014. He is responsible for the care of the Library collections, including books, magazines, photographs, diaries, letters, and much more. The NSLM collections span over 350 years of the history of equestrian sport, as well as fly fishing, wing shooting, and other field sports. Have a question? Contact John by e-mail

“By means of a good telescope, a very distinct view may be obtained of the moon,” reads one of many short pieces that made up the 1882 edition of The Hagerstown Town and Country Almanack. The Almanack had been in print for decades by 1882, tracing back into the 1850s as a dispensary of moral admonition and humorous stories. “With the highest power, however, yet employed, no trace of any inhabitants has been discovered,” the article continued. “Though any large towns must have been seen, did such exist on [the moon’s] visible side.”

almanack
J. Gruber’s Hagerstown Town and Country Almanack, for the Year of Our Lord 1856. National Sporting Library & Museum.

Despite the inevitable disappointment that the lack of habitations on the moon must have caused readers, almanacs were a staple of American popular literature in the 18th and 19th Centuries. Almanacs have been produced for centuries, dating back into the Middle Ages, with working theories on the earliest almanacs connecting them to Babylonian astronomers. Modern almanacs are known for conjecture on the weather, and for extensive handy reference charts. In the information age, the almanac is no longer a primary reference text, but the genre has continued on as a traditional publication. Poor Richard’s Almanack, produced by Benjamin Franklin, is a legendary title in the genre, and today’s most popular iteration is the Old Farmer’s Almanac, which has been faithfully produced since 1792.

The Hagerstown Town and Country Almanack was decorated by engravings that were recycled every year. The engravings depicted farm life throughout the year:

In the NSLM’s F. Ambrose Clark Rare Book Room we have several copies of minor almanacs (including The Hagerstown Town and Country Almanack from the 1850s to the mid-1880s and Richardson’s Almanac of Virginia and North Carolina from the 1860s) that give detailed insight into daily life for the era. The heart of the annual almanac was the provision of ready details and charts for the year. Generally, these charts covered the weather, important dates, phases of the moon and tides, or lists of government representatives. The other articles maintained the interest of the reader, and were usually humorous stories or practical advice:

A Fast Frigate.
Dave Constable says there is one advantage about old-fashioned frigates. They drag so much dead water behind, that if a man falls overboard on Monday, you need not stop till Friday, to pick him up again.

The Hagerston Town and Country Almanack, 1856

The Library’s copies of Richardson’s Almanac of Virginia and North Carolina offer a very different tone. These copies were printed during the Civil War, and list facts and information on the government and daily life in the Confederacy, such as postage rates:

postage
Rates of Postage, Richardson’s Almanac of Virginia and North Carolina, 1864.

The 1864 edition contains no humorous articles and reflects in its offerings the somber trials in war-torn Virginia. Articles include instructions for how to prevent flies from wounds, how to make three dishes from a single beet plant, advice for crafting makeshift lamps from common animal grease, and directions for making shoes from squirrel skins tacked to plain boards. By the 1875 edition, Richardson’s Almanac had reintroduced humorous stories to begin the publication, and the recipes that hinted at the war’s impact had disappeared from from the publication.


Wedding Photography by Spiering Photography

John Connolly has served as the George L. Ohrstrom, Jr. Head Librarian at the National Sporting Library & Museum (NSLM) since early 2014. He is responsible for the care of the Library collections, including books, magazines, photographs, diaries, letters, and much more. The NSLM collections span over 350 years of the history of equestrian sport, as well as fly fishing, wing shooting, and other field sports. Have a question? Contact John by e-mail

In 1726, an elderly woman known to history as Janet Horne was paraded through the Scottish town of Dornoch, covered in tar, and burned for being a witch. Janet Horne was a generic placeholder name in Scotland for witches during the period, and this Janet Horne holds the distinction of being the last person executed for witchcraft in the British Isles. One of the curious things about the case was the nature of the accusations against Horne involved her daughter, who had deformed hands and feet. The townspeople accused Horne of having turned her daughter into a pony and ridden her to the Devil to have her shod. Though the daughter escaped the mob, Horne (who by most accounts was elderly and showing signs of senility) was caught and killed.

Scheiterhaufen_2
Verbrennung auf dem Scheiterhaufen. Accessed via Wikimedia Commons.

While casting about for an appropriately Halloween-themed blog post, I found a bevy of information about the connections between witches and horses. Accusations that purveyors of the dark arts were connected to horses abound — even into the 21st Century. A story reported in Blockula, Sweden in 1699 asserted that an army of witches had been accosting men in their sleep, putting an enchanted halter over their heads to turn them into horses. And in another case from Scotland, a woman named Margaret Grant claimed to have been turned into a pony by “evil-disposed persons” and forced to ride great distances.

The_History_of_Witches_and_Wizards,_1720_Wellcome_L0026614
Two witches smoking their pipes by the fire with a toad at their feet. From The History of Witches and Wizards (1720), Wellcome Library. Accessed via Wikimedia Commons.

In addition to these stories is a recurring, mixed account of the ghostly Nightmare, also called the Night Hag. As far back as the Renaissance, horse owners have reported visits of the Nightmare to their horses. Signs in the morning include the horse covered in sweat, exhausted, and a tangled mane, sometimes described as plaited by supernatural means. The phenomenon has been attributed to witches and pixies (who, being obsessed with mortal horses, steal them to ride at night), and in recent years, to Bigfoot or occult-obsessed horse thieves. So pervasive was the concern over the nightmare that Thomas Blundeville, in his 1564 book The Fower Chiefest Offices Belonging to Horsemanship, included an incantation (and directions for hanging naturally-perforated stones in the stable) to ward against the Nightmare. The incantation was touted by Blundeville as a practical way for horse owners to avoid having to pay a “false Fryer” to produce the warding spell.

The primary sign of the Nightmare is the fairy plaits in the mane. Although skeptics claim that a horse’s mane can easily become tangled on its own under correct atmospheric conditions, elaborate tales of unauthorized braiding have been reported.

“It was very generally accepted as an indisputable fact at that time that not only witches, but also certain malignant sprites who lived in the woodland gardens, occasionally assumed the forms of women clad in white raiment, who in this guise would haunt the stables when night fell. They carried with them tapers of lighted wax, and they used the drippings from these to tangle the horses’ manes into inextricable knots, to the great annoyance both of the steeds and of their grooms.”

The Horse in Magic and Myth, M. Oldfield Howley, National Sporting Library & Museum

The tying of knots as a spell is an ancient theory of witchcraft. It’s not a huge leap from fairy plaits to the Witch’s Ladder, a layered cord of knots, each with a separate intention of spell. Theories of various malevolent hexes were floated in the late 19th Century, a common one being that the Witch’s Ladder contained a death spell that could only be undone by finding and untying the cord.

witchsladder
Witch’s Ladder, from The Folk-Lore Journal Volume 5 (1888). University of Toronto. Accessed via Wikimedia Commons.

How do we interpret these reports of Nightmare and tangled manes? It could be that in an era where many more people were adept at handling horses, the propensity to “borrow” a turned-out horse for a nighttime ride was a more common practice. A sweaty, exhausted horse from such an exercise might have a tangled mane where an unauthorized rider held on to the steed. Or maybe there’s more to it: pixies, witches, or Bigfoot.


Wedding Photography by Spiering Photography

John Connolly has served as the George L. Ohrstrom, Jr. Head Librarian at the National Sporting Library & Museum (NSLM) since early 2014. He is responsible for the care of the Library collections, including books, magazines, photographs, diaries, letters, and much more. The NSLM collections span over 350 years of the history of equestrian sport, as well as fly fishing, wing shooting, and other field sports. Have a question? Contact John by e-mail

“Help! Help! There’s a panther in monsieur’s bedroom!”

The shouts and cries, accompanied by the frenzied barking of dogs, carried across the gardens of Maqbara e Humayun (Humayun’s Mausoleum) where two European gentlemen were staying. The frenzy interrupted the evening reverie of both gentlemen, who had just settled into the peaceful enjoyment of drinks and cigars. The gentlemen were Louis Rousselet (1845-1929) of France and Jules Henri Jean Schaumberg (1839-1886) of Belgium.

Louis_Rousselet
Louis Rousselet (right) with Jules Henri Jean Schaumburg (in Indian attire), 1867. Accessed via Wikimedia Commons.

Rousselet was renowned for his travels to India from 1864 to 1868. An anthorpologist and archaeologist, Rousselet was an early pioneer of darkroom photography, and his ability to document his extensive travels in central India made him an ideal candidate to project an exotic romance on a country that had come under British dominion in 1858. Writing extensively of his travels and adventures, Rousselet’s 600 photographs of the journey were transferred into engravings to illustrate his accounts for the French travel magazine, Le Tour du Monde. Rousselet’s notes, drawings, and photographs were compiled into a massive, luxurious tome entitled L’Inde des Rajas (1875) which would enjoy wide success and translation into English under the title India and Its Native Princes.

start-of-the-hunt-govindgarii
“The Start of the Hunt, Govindgarii.” Rousselet recounts a tiger hunt from elephant back during his travels. From India and Its Native Princes, (1875) National Sporting Library & Museum, gift of Mimi Abel Smith.

Rousselet met Schaumberg, and artist, in Bombay in 1865 and the two would become fast friends and travelling companions for the next three years. Together, the gentlemen traveled across India and experienced the finest art, culture, and architecture available. They hunted tigers from the backs of elephants, visited historical sites, and learned the history and customs that would all end as fodder for Rousselet’s book.

mausoleum
“Humayun’s Mausoleum,” from from India and Its Native Princes, (1875) National Sporting Library & Museum, gift of Mimi Abel Smith.

At Humayun’s Masoleum in the plain of Delhi, the travelers were afforded lodging in the form of a makeshift bungalow in one of the garden kiosks. They toured the magnificent structure, commissioned for the Emperor Humayun (1508–1556) by his widow, Empress Bega Begum (1511-1582). Humayun died from a fall in his library, loaded down with books, attempting to kneel in reverence to the Muslim call to prayer. Bega Begum spent years constructing the most impressive mausoleum in the Mughal Empire.

As the European travelers were relaxing following a dinner served by their servants, the crying of distress about a panther in the bungalow roused them, and they rushed to see what the trouble was. The dogs barked madly at the entrance to Rousselet’s bedroom, and the servants held their distance, afraid of the “panther.” Rousselet took cloths dipped in oil on a stick to create a makeshift torch, and threw them into the bedroom, revealing a creature crouching “almost under the bed.”

tiger-hunt-rewah
“A Tiger Hunt, Rewah”, from India and Its Native Princes, (1875) National Sporting Library & Museum, gift of Mimi Abel Smith.

It turned out to be a hyena. A pistol was retrieved from a nearby table, and was shot by Rousselet before being dispatched by servants bearing spears and clubs. Amused by the juxtaposition of the panther and a timid hyena, the Europeans laughed off the episode as a ludicrous “hunt in the bedroom.” It would prove to be one of many adventures on the trip,  including the “torture” of traveling in the “mail cart,” a horse-drawn chariot that drove a break-neck speeds along roads in the mountainous Indian countryside.

mail-cart
“The Mail Cart,” from India and Its Native Princes, (1875) National Sporting Library & Museum, gift of Mimi Abel Smith. The European visitors were deeply uncomfortable to hitch a ride on the mail chariot.

In the end, Rousselet and Schaumberg parted in September 1868, when Rousselet returned to France. What had been intended as a six month journey had extended more than four years, and Schaumberg, who would go on to be appointed artist to The Geological Survey of India in Calcutta, stayed behind to attend to his business.


Wedding Photography by Spiering Photography

John Connolly has served as the George L. Ohrstrom, Jr. Head Librarian at the National Sporting Library & Museum (NSLM) since early 2014. He is responsible for the care of the Library collections, including books, magazines, photographs, diaries, letters, and much more. The NSLM collections span over 350 years of the history of equestrian sport, as well as fly fishing, wing shooting, and other field sports. Have a question? Contact John by e-mail

Last month, we cracked open an ambitious project in the Library: the complete reprocessing and recataloging of everything stored in the F. Ambrose Clark Rare Book Room. The project will likely last a year and is very challenging as we will be fully describing every object in our rare book collections, many of them in archaic languages.

Rare Book Room 1
Like our Main Reading Room, many objects in the Rare Book Room are not cataloged, and most need to be stored to make more efficient use of space.
Rare Book Room 2
As each collection is cataloged and reprocessed, acid-free index cards with barcodes and call numbers are inserted. Everything will now be findable in the NSLM’s library catalog, and to researchers using the OCLC’s WorldCat system.
Rare Book Room 3
We started with the most challenging materials, building a dedicated section for “folio” items: those which are too large to be shelved with the regular “oversized” books.
Rare Book Room 4
Shelving was cleared and removed for repairs and re-anchoring of wall units. It was a great opportunity for our facilities staff to perform stabilization and repairs.

 

IMG_20170926_135210
With repairs and maintenance complete, the entire room was painted for an updated look.

IMG_20170927_171035

IMG_20170927_171121

IMG_20170927_171142.jpg

We’ll be updating our members as we continue work on this exciting project. We’re already cataloging quite a few treasures from our rare collections that will now be easier to find and access.


Wedding Photography by Spiering Photography

John Connolly has served as the George L. Ohrstrom, Jr. Head Librarian at the National Sporting Library & Museum (NSLM) since early 2014. He is responsible for the care of the Library collections, including books, magazines, photographs, diaries, letters, and much more. The NSLM collections span over 350 years of the history of equestrian sport, as well as fly fishing, wing shooting, and other field sports. Have a question? Contact John by e-mail