With winter weather closing in and the holiday season nearly upon us, one might find oneself stuck inside with visiting family and searching for an activity to fill the time. If the allure of the television has waned, and you’d like to do something that gets everyone actively involved, I suggest going old school. How about a card or dicing game? If you’re rusty on the rules or want to try a new game, reaching for a copy of one Edmond Hoyle’s books would be a good place to start.
Beginning in 1742, Edmond Hoyle (1672-1769) wrote several treatises on a variety of card games and backgammon. In 1748 his publisher, Thomas Osborne, began to sell a compilation of Hoyle’s earlier works. As a result of these publications Hoyle eventually became the acknowledged expert on the rules for many games, especially Whist. The phrase, “according to Hoyle” has become idiomatic in English, meaning according to the rules, or according to the highest authority.
Although today Hoyle is the most well known name in table game rule books, he was not the first to publish such works. The Library holds two volumes of an earlier title, The Compleat Gamester. The first edition of this book was published anonymously in 1674. It covered numerous card games, games from the backgammon genre, and several outdoor sports. Its full title was, The Compleat Gamester: Or, Instructions How to Play at Billiards, Trucks, Bowls, and Chess. Together with all manner of usual and most Gentile Games either on Cards or Dice. To which is added, The Arts and Mysteries of Riding, Racing, Archery, and Cock-Fighting.”
Over the next 50 years the popular book was reissued and reprinted frequently. Several new editions with additional material and various subtitles appeared. NSLM holds an edition from 1710 called, The Compleat Gamester: or instructions how to play at all manner of usual, and most gentile games, either on cards, dice, billiards, trucks, bowls, or chess; also the arts and misteries of riding, racing, archery and cock-fighting. To which is added, the game Basset; with a discourse of gaming in general. The description of a gaming ordinary, and the character of a gamester. With a song on the game at Piquet. Despite this title, much of the material in the book does not concern how to play games but rather how to spot a cheater. In this excerpt from the Epistle to the Reader that precedes the text, the author’s opinion of “gamesters” is made quite clear,
Mistake me not, it is not my intention to make Gamesters by this collection, but to inform all in part how to avoid being cheated by them: If I am imperfect in my discoveries, impute it to my being no profest Gamester, and the hatred I bear that hellish society; by whom I know I shall be laught at, and with whom if I should converse, I might sooner by my study come to be Nature’s Secretary, and unriddle all her Arcanas than collect from them any new unpractised secret by which they bubble ignorant credulity, and purchase money and good apparel with everlasting shame and infamy.
To conclude, let me advise you, if you play (when your business will permit) let not a covetous desire of winning another’s money engage you to the losing your own, which will not only disturb your mind, but by the disreputation of being a Gamester, if you lose not your estate, you will certainly lose your credit and good name, than which there is nothing more valuable (Compleat Gamester, 1710).
The author’s anonymity and the vehemence of his opinion of “gamesters” makes me wonder if he wasn’t expertly fleeced himself. Perhaps this book is his revenge on the culprit.
Individual games are given basic descriptions but generally there is not much information on actual game play or strategy. Instead the author offers clear descriptions of some techniques used by “gamesters” to cheat other players. For example, he describes Piping, where the gamester’s accomplice, on the pretense of leisurely smoking a pipe, adopts a position in which he is able to view the cards of the gamester’s opponent. The accomplice is then able to signal the contents of the dupe’s hand to the gamester. The signals consist of various finger placements on the pipe, which the gamester can see and decipher. Ironically given the author’s clear disapproval of cheating, the detailed descriptions he provides of it serve not only as a warning to would-be marks, but also as instructions for would be gamesters.
In addition to practical gaming advice, the author also offers commentary that is sometimes comical or clever. I love this line about bowling, “A Bowling-Green, or Bowling-Ally is a place where three things are thrown away besides the Bowls, viz. Time, Money and Curses, at the last ten for one” (Compleat Gamester (1710), p. 35).
In 1719 in a bid to capitalize on the popularity of The Compleat Gamester, notorious bookseller Edmund Curll hired Richard Seymour to write The Court Gamester. The volume dealt with Ombre, Piquet, and Chess. Apparently Curll’s gambit of offering a book on a similar topic with a similar name to the popular Compleat Gamester paid off as there were four more editions published by 1732. In 1734 the two titles were published together as, The Compleat Gamester in Three Parts. The Library holds a 1739 edition of this combined title.
The work includes instructions and rules for card games (ombre, quadrille, quintile, piquet, basset, faro, whist, all-fours, cribbage, put, lue, brag, &c.), chess, English and French billiards, riding, horse racing, archery, cock fighting and bowling.
In addition to updating the rules of game playing, the preface of this book identifies the author of the original 1674 Compleat Gamester: “The second and third parts of this treatise were originally written by Charles Cotton Esq; some years since, but are now rectified according to the present standard of play” (page viii). Charles Cotton is best known today as the author of portions of Isaac Walton’s The Compleat Angler. He died insolvent in 1687, 13 years after the publication of The Compleat Gamester, but I could not find anything indicating that he had gambled away his money or been swindled by a nefarious gamester. His motivation for penning the book remains a mystery.
Although The Compleat Gamester retained its popularity for three quarters of a century, eventually Edmond Hoyle’s publications eclipsed it.* The final edition of Gamester appeared in 1754.
Rule books featuring the name Hoyle are still in production today. Over time new editions featured rules for new games and eliminated those for games that fell out of favor. If you plan ahead a bit and lay in a couple decks of cards and some dice, along with a copy of Hoyle’s or even one of the editions of The Compleat Gamester, you’ll have an activity for snowbound evenings. Maybe you’ll learn how to play Whist and can show off that knowledge the next time Jane Austen’s stories come up.
* David Levy’s blog, Edmond Hoyle, Gent. provided a great deal of the publication history contained in this post. It is also chock full of interesting information on gaming, recreation, and book selling and publication in the 18th Century. I encourage our readers to visit his blog and do a little exploring.
Erica Libhart has served as the Mars Technical Services Librarian at the National Sporting Library & Museum (NSLM) since early 2016. The focus of her position is collection services, working to increase accessibility to NSLM’s collection of books, periodicals, and archival materials. The NSLM collections span over 350 years of the history of equestrian sport, as well as fly fishing, wing shooting, and other field sports. Have a question? Contact Erica by e-mail